Our last forum will look at social development. Please answer the following three questions in your initial posting.
1-How is social learning linked to academic learning?
2-How are schools providing for social development for children?
3-What are notable issues on gender-role development in society today and how are we as a family and society reacting?
Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood
The focus of this lesson is the emotional and social development in early childhood. It is critical that, during a child’s early years, he or she is exposed to great variety of experiences that contribute to healthy social and emotional growth. Furthermore, this lesson will focus on the ways in which children develop a sense of self. When children interact with peers, they also advance in their social skills and social development. Finally, being aware of the different roles that genetic and environmental influences play on gender-role development will lead to greater understanding of gender expectations for these young children.
TOPICS TO BE COVERED INCLUDE:
· The development of the aspects of the self
· Peer sociability
· Moral development
· Gender-role development
Development of Aspects of the Self
As children learn to talk and their language skills improve, they become more self-aware as seen in the ways in which they subjectively talk about themselves. As children become able to understand their self-concept ‒ their attributes, attitudes, abilities, and qualities that make them unique ‒ they truly begin to develop a sense of self-awareness. This self-awareness has a profound impact on a child’s emotional and social life. Additionally, self-esteem is also affected by children’s awareness of self.
· RECOGNIZING SELF AS SEPARATE
· SELF-AWARENESS GROWS
· REFERRING TO SELF BY NAME
· PREFERENCES AND EMOTIONS
In infancy children develop an awareness of their body. As children continue to age, they begin to understand that they are separate beings from others. For example, during late toddlerhood, children learn that they have different emotional states, different characteristics (physical and emotional) and different actions or responses from others.
Psychosocial Developmental Stages
This self-awareness development corresponds to the second stage of Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Development. Click on the icons to read about the milestones for each stage.
1 ½ to 3
Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt.
3 to 4
Initiative versus Guilt.
PRIDE AND HAPPINESS
IF SUPEREGO IS OVERLY STRICT
SOME SHAME AND GUILT IS NEEDED
Self-concept is the image that we hold about ourselves. These ideas or images stem from the beliefs that a child has about him or herself as well as how other individuals view that particular child. Self-concept is what children think about themselves, how they evaluate themselves, and perceives themselves.
· The child’s self-concept, or the ideas that a child has about himself or herself has a direct impact on emotional and social well-being. The categorical self emerges when a child becomes aware of himself or herself as a separate being from others, and that they are an object in the world. It is here that children continue to develop their self-concept.
Self-Esteem in Early Years
· PREOPERATIONAL STAGE
· EASY-GOING TEMPERAMENT
· DIFFICULT TEMPERAMENT
Self-esteem, the judgements we make about our own worth and the emotions that are associated with such judgements, is another aspect of self concept. Self-esteem directly affects emotional experiences, future behaviors, and long-term psychological adjustments.
Self Esteem in Older Preschoolers
By the age of four, preschoolers have developed self awareness and even self-judgements in several areas of their life, like learning, relationships, play, etc.
NO ASSIMILATION OF JUDGEMENTS FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES
COMPETENCIES INCORRECTLY APPRAISED
· As children’s self-awareness matures, so does their autobiographical memory, which is their remembered self. The remembered self includes accounts of experiences as a child as well as memories that are shared with the children by adults. The autobiographical memory greatly influences a child’s self-concept and self-esteem.
· PEER SOCIABILITY
· PROSOCIAL EVENTS
· COMMUNICATION ABILITY AND PEER RELATIONSHIPS
· TEACHING SOCIAL SKILLS
There are several areas in a child’s life that greatly affect the ways in which they interact socially with their peers. As children age, their relationships with their peers and their sociability advance. Peers play a critically important role in children’s well-being, because as their sociability develops, so does the children’s understanding of self and of others. Peer sociability is the interactions and friendships with others. Peer relationships in early childhood have a long-term impact on children. Positive peer relationships especially impact children because they serve as a protective factor against later psychological issues. On the other hand, negative peer relationships, such as peer rejection, are connected to poorer psychological and educational outcomes for children.
Levels of Peer Sociability
Peer sociability in the context of play affects children’s emotional and social development. Since play is the major activity of young children, much of what is known about children is in this context. For example, Mildred Parten is one of the first to study children in the context of play in 1930s. She identified that peer sociability proceeds in four levels.
CHILDREN ENGAGE IN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PLAY
· Sociodramatic play, which is a type of Parten’s cooperative level of play, is a more cognitively advanced form of play. This play becomes more common in preschool years. This type of play supports cognitive, social, and emotional development.
Gender and Cultural Differences in Play
· GENDER DIFFERENCES
· PLAY IN INDIA
· PLAY IN CHINA
· RURAL AND URBAN DIFFERENCES
Girls engage in more sociodramatic play and boys engage in more rough and tumble types of interactions. Regardless of the type, play requires children to understand the emotions of themselves and others, exercise self-control, and respond to others’ verbal and nonverbal cues.
Friendships for toddlers and preschoolers differs greatly from the components that make up a friendship for adult. Older toddlers and preschoolers have friendships, but they do not have the long-term enduring quality based on mutual trust, as adult friendships and relationships do. Children’s friendships are primarily based on pleasurable play and sharing toys, which lasts approximately until the age of seven, which is also the end of the psychosocial stage that Freud identified. Friendships are typically related to proximity. Children form friendships with other children at their daycare or preschool.
INFLUENCE OF ADULTS AND PEERS
INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS
· MORALITY IN THE YOUNG CHILD
· STANDARDS OF MORALITY
· MILESTONES OF MORALITY
Morality in the young child is centered around the development of the conscience, which is one of the superegos addressed earlier in this lesson.
Psychoanalytic Theory, developed by Sigmund Freud, stresses the emotional side of conscience development, especially identification and guilt as motivators of good conduct. This occurs in stages.
· A child obeys superego to avoid guilt, a painful emotion experienced when a child is tempted to misbehave.
Social Learning Theory
Social Learning Theory focuses on how moral behavior is learned through reinforcement and modeling. Unlike the psychoanalytic theory, it does not have unique stages; rather, morality is acquired gradually like other sets of responses
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD MODEL
CONSEQUENCES OF INADEQUATE MODELS
Cognitive Developmental Theory
· THINKING AND REASONING
· SOME RULES ARE MORE IMPORTANT
· SOME CHOICES ARE NEITHER GOOD NOR BAD
· RIGID MORAL REASONING
Cognitive Development Theory emphasizes thinking and a child’s ability to reason about justice and fairness and other social rules. By preschool, children make moral judgments about what is right or wrong. Sometimes, children have well-developed ideas, like whether a person intentionally wants to hurt or frighten or embarrass another. They understand that this individual is more deserving of punishment, compared to the child that unintentionally does one of those things (hurt or embarrass). Children approve of telling truth and disapprove of lying.
Gender role development revolves around the child’s perception of the characteristics and behaviors identified with being a female or male. Children identify with a specific gender role based on both biological and environmental factors and influences.
· Gender Identity: whether a child identifies as being a male or female; most children identify with their biological sex but a small percentage do not or gender identity is not clear to them.
Similar to mannerisms, religious beliefs, and racism that stem from the home environment, attitudes that drive gender role are learned at home also. They are reinforced by peers, school, and the media. Children as young as two have been known to have a fairly well-developed understanding of gender roles.
RIGID PERCEPTION OF GENDER ROLES
Biological Influences on Gender Role Development
· ANIMAL STUDIES
· EVOLUTIONARY BASIS
· PRENATAL HORMONE EXPOSURE
· REDUCED ANDROGEN LEVELS
Sex differences in play and personality have been discussed and viewed in cultures across the world. Studies of mammals show that males tend to have higher amounts of physical aggression, females tend to be more emotionally sensitive, and at young ages, children prefer same-sex playmates.
Environmental Influences on Gender Role Development
Noticeable gender-typed behavior arises from ages two to thirteen with the sharpest increase in young preschoolers. Experiences at home build on genetic influences, leading to stronger gender typing in early childhood. From birth, children have different experiences based on their gender.
· For example, parents create a different environment by their choice of the color of the room, toys, clothes and how they interact which continues throughout childhood. Boys tend to get toys that involve action and/or competition.
The study of child development began in the 20th century, and many of the original theories and ideas of the 20th century continue to influence the study of child development today. Nature via genetics shapes many aspects of children’s lives and development, such as appearance, physical health, personality, intelligence and more. Nurture, or environmental factors, also plays a key role in the intellectual, emotional and physical development of children. The first two to three years of life are a time of rapid growth and development for children emotionally, physically, and cognitively. These years provide the basis for future learning. Physical or emotional harm during this time can cause lifelong issues with cognition, emotional control, impulse control, and motor skills. Both heredity and environment impact the cognitive ability of growing children.
Emotional and social development begins at birth and continues through infancy and toddlerhood. Basic emotions such as happiness and fear are found early in infancy. These are related to survival. Complex or higher-order emotions like shame and pride emerge once the child has a sense of self. Between birth and three years of age, children grow and develop rapidly. Growth is driven by genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. In order for children’s language skill, development, and acquisition to grow, they must be exposed to opportunities to communicate with themselves, other children, and adults that use rich vocabulary. Based on research, there are several different stages (ages) at which we can expect children to start participating in make-believe play, understanding metacognition, communicating with others, and understanding grammar. Exposure to these practices will improve language skills and practices.
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY
· Cherry, K. (2016, June 5). What is the superego. VeryWell. Retrieved from https://www.verywell.com/what-is-the-superego-2795876
· Cherry, K. (2016, June 21). Preoperational stage of cognitive development. VeryWell. Retrieved from https://www.verywell.com/preoperational-stage-of-cognitive-development-2795461
Prosocial definition. (n.d.). Retrieved