Our last forum will look at social development. Please answer the following three questions in your initial posting.

1-How is social learning linked to academic learning?

2-How are schools providing for social development for children?

3-What are notable issues on gender-role development in society today and how are we as a family and society reacting?

Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood

The focus of this lesson is the emotional and social development in early childhood. It is critical that, during a child’s early years, he or she is exposed to great variety of experiences that contribute to healthy social and emotional growth. Furthermore, this lesson will focus on the ways in which children develop a sense of self. When children interact with peers, they also advance in their social skills and social development. Finally, being aware of the different roles that genetic and environmental influences play on gender-role development will lead to greater understanding of gender expectations for these young children.


· The development of the aspects of the self

· Peer sociability

· Moral development

· Gender-role development

Development of Aspects of the Self

As children learn to talk and their language skills improve, they become more self-aware as seen in the ways in which they subjectively talk about themselves. As children become able to understand their self-concept ‒ their attributes, attitudes, abilities, and qualities that make them unique ‒ they truly begin to develop a sense of self-awareness. This self-awareness has a profound impact on a child’s emotional and social life. Additionally, self-esteem is also affected by children’s awareness of self.






In infancy children develop an awareness of their body. As children continue to age, they begin to understand that they are separate beings from others. For example, during late toddlerhood, children learn that they have different emotional states, different characteristics (physical and emotional) and different actions or responses from others.

Psychosocial Developmental Stages

This self-awareness development corresponds to the second stage of Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Development. Click on the icons to read about the milestones for each stage.



Erikson’s Stage


1 ½ to 3

Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt.


3 to 4

Initiative versus Guilt.










Self-concept is the image that we hold about ourselves. These ideas or images stem from the beliefs that a child has about him or herself as well as how other individuals view that particular child. Self-concept is what children think about themselves, how they evaluate themselves, and perceives themselves.


· The child’s self-concept, or the ideas that a child has about himself or herself has a direct impact on emotional and social well-being. The categorical self emerges when a child becomes aware of himself or herself as a separate being from others, and that they are an object in the world. It is here that children continue to develop their self-concept.

Self-Esteem in Early Years





Self-esteem, the judgements we make about our own worth and the emotions that are associated with such judgements, is another aspect of self concept. Self-esteem directly affects emotional experiences, future behaviors, and long-term psychological adjustments.

Self Esteem in Older Preschoolers

By the age of four, preschoolers have developed self awareness and even self-judgements in several areas of their life, like learning, relationships, play, etc.





Autobiographical Memory


· As children’s self-awareness matures, so does their autobiographical memory, which is their remembered self. The remembered self includes accounts of experiences as a child as well as memories that are shared with the children by adults. The autobiographical memory greatly influences a child’s self-concept and self-esteem.

Peer Sociability





There are several areas in a child’s life that greatly affect the ways in which they interact socially with their peers. As children age, their relationships with their peers and their sociability advance. Peers play a critically important role in children’s well-being, because as their sociability develops, so does the children’s understanding of self and of others. Peer sociability is the interactions and friendships with others. Peer relationships in early childhood have a long-term impact on children. Positive peer relationships especially impact children because they serve as a protective factor against later psychological issues. On the other hand, negative peer relationships, such as peer rejection, are connected to poorer psychological and educational outcomes for children.

Levels of Peer Sociability

Peer sociability in the context of play affects children’s emotional and social development. Since play is the major activity of young children, much of what is known about children is in this context. For example, Mildred Parten is one of the first to study children in the context of play in 1930s. She identified that peer sociability proceeds in four levels.






Sociodramatic Play


· Sociodramatic play, which is a type of Parten’s cooperative level of play, is a more cognitively advanced form of play. This play becomes more common in preschool years. This type of play supports cognitive, social, and emotional development.

Gender and Cultural Differences in Play





Girls engage in more sociodramatic play and boys engage in more rough and tumble types of interactions. Regardless of the type, play requires children to understand the emotions of themselves and others, exercise self-control, and respond to others’ verbal and nonverbal cues.


Friendships for toddlers and preschoolers differs greatly from the components that make up a friendship for adult. Older toddlers and preschoolers have friendships, but they do not have the long-term enduring quality based on mutual trust, as adult friendships and relationships do. Children’s friendships are primarily based on pleasurable play and sharing toys, which lasts approximately until the age of seven, which is also the end of the psychosocial stage that Freud identified. Friendships are typically related to proximity. Children form friendships with other children at their daycare or preschool.





Moral Development





Morality in the young child is centered around the development of the conscience, which is one of the superegos addressed earlier in this lesson.

Psychoanalytic Theory

Psychoanalytic Theory, developed by Sigmund Freud, stresses the emotional side of conscience development, especially identification and guilt as motivators of good conduct. This occurs in stages.


· A child obeys superego to avoid guilt, a painful emotion experienced when a child is tempted to misbehave.

Social Learning Theory

Social Learning Theory focuses on how moral behavior is learned through reinforcement and modeling. Unlike the psychoanalytic theory, it does not have unique stages; rather, morality is acquired gradually like other sets of responses





Cognitive Developmental Theory





Cognitive Development Theory emphasizes thinking and a child’s ability to reason about justice and fairness and other social rules. By preschool, children make moral judgments about what is right or wrong. Sometimes, children have well-developed ideas, like whether a person intentionally wants to hurt or frighten or embarrass another. They understand that this individual is more deserving of punishment, compared to the child that unintentionally does one of those things (hurt or embarrass). Children approve of telling truth and disapprove of lying.

Gender-Role Development

Gender role development revolves around the child’s perception of the characteristics and behaviors identified with being a female or male. Children identify with a specific gender role based on both biological and environmental factors and influences.



· Gender Identity: whether a child identifies as being a male or female; most children identify with their biological sex but a small percentage do not or gender identity is not clear to them.

Gender-Role Development

Similar to mannerisms, religious beliefs, and racism that stem from the home environment, attitudes that drive gender role are learned at home also. They are reinforced by peers, school, and the media. Children as young as two have been known to have a fairly well-developed understanding of gender roles.






Biological Influences on Gender Role Development





Sex differences in play and personality have been discussed and viewed in cultures across the world. Studies of mammals show that males tend to have higher amounts of physical aggression, females tend to be more emotionally sensitive, and at young ages, children prefer same-sex playmates.

Environmental Influences on Gender Role Development

Noticeable gender-typed behavior arises from ages two to thirteen with the sharpest increase in young preschoolers. Experiences at home build on genetic influences, leading to stronger gender typing in early childhood. From birth, children have different experiences based on their gender.


· For example, parents create a different environment by their choice of the color of the room, toys, clothes and how they interact which continues throughout childhood. Boys tend to get toys that involve action and/or competition.

Lesson Overview

The study of child development began in the 20th century, and many of the original theories and ideas of the 20th century continue to influence the study of child development today. Nature via genetics shapes many aspects of children’s lives and development, such as appearance, physical health, personality, intelligence and more. Nurture, or environmental factors, also plays a key role in the intellectual, emotional and physical development of children. The first two to three years of life are a time of rapid growth and development for children emotionally, physically, and cognitively. These years provide the basis for future learning. Physical or emotional harm during this time can cause lifelong issues with cognition, emotional control, impulse control, and motor skills. Both heredity and environment impact the cognitive ability of growing children.

Emotional and social development begins at birth and continues through infancy and toddlerhood. Basic emotions such as happiness and fear are found early in infancy. These are related to survival. Complex or higher-order emotions like shame and pride emerge once the child has a sense of self. Between birth and three years of age, children grow and develop rapidly. Growth is driven by genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. In order for children’s language skill, development, and acquisition to grow, they must be exposed to opportunities to communicate with themselves, other children, and adults that use rich vocabulary. Based on research, there are several different stages (ages) at which we can expect children to start participating in make-believe play, understanding metacognition, communicating with others, and understanding grammar. Exposure to these practices will improve language skills and practices.

Key Terms:
















Works Cited:

· Cherry, K. (2016, June 5). What is the superego. VeryWell. Retrieved from https://www.verywell.com/what-is-the-superego-2795876

· Cherry, K. (2016, June 21). Preoperational stage of cognitive development. VeryWell. Retrieved from https://www.verywell.com/preoperational-stage-of-cognitive-development-2795461

Prosocial definition. (n.d.). Retrieved  



I need help with the following assignment. Pleae let me know if you can help. Thank you!

 Explain the relevance of assessing for psychopathy or antisocial personality disorder in an adult forensic population, as well as the reasons for assessing for psychopathy or antisocial personality disorder. Describe when and where in the adjudicative process assessment for psychopathy or antisocial personality disorder may be used, using specific examples. Explain how assessing for psychopathy or antisocial personality disorder may influence a case outcome, using specific examples.

Support your Application Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation

  Assignment 2: Outside Group Observation 1

For this assignment, you will attend a group session. The group may be a community-based group, a school-related group, a private practice group, an area support group, or other appropriate counseling group. You are responsible for making arrangements to attend the group. Exercise judgment in selecting the group to attend. For example, one would need permission from the group leader to attend a meeting of a suicide survivors’ group, but attending an open 12 step meeting would be much easier. You may find such open groups at schools, hospitals, community centers, or agencies.

Select the group and submit your choice for instructor approval by email, specifying the type of group, location of meeting, and anticipated date and time of attendance. No identifying information about group participants should appear in the paper. Be prepared to make changes if the instructor offers suggestions.

Once the group is approved, attend the session and write a report on the following: Analyze the current stage of the group and what you believe would help the group to function more effectively. Characterize the type of group session. (What issue or process occurred as the focus of the session?) Detail the group counseling theory that was being applied in the group session. Describe the techniques that were employed by the group leader during the session. Determine whether the desired group outcomes were achieved. Explain how the group leader’s behavior influenced these outcomes. Reflect on future directions for this group (i.e., possible next sessions).

Your paper should be a 3-page Microsoft Word document, citing a minimum of two scholarly sources.

 Create an 8- to 10-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation on spatial organization.

Describe the following:The concept of spatial organizationHow spatial organization affects visual perceptionHow perception influences behavior

Format your presentation consistent with APA guidelines.

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment. 


 Case Vignette 1

You began working started your new job as a counselor at a Native American reservation in Arizona. You are new to the area and the population. Discuss the ethical guidelines you will want to consider in your work with this client. 

Case Vignette 2 You are working at a community mental health center in New York City.  Your newest client is a 40 year old Mexican woman, married, living with her extended family in New York.   She is unemployed and has two children, ages 8 and 10. She is experiencing severe depression and was referred by her family physician. Discuss the ethical guidelines you will want to consider in your work with this client. In the case analysis, please include the following information: Description of at least 3 ethical and/or legal issues in the vignette Identification of relevant ethical codes Explanation of 3 courses of action to resolve the issue Description of the decision-making process for each course of action Assessment of option that best upholds the ethical standards of the profession

The paper should be 5 to 6 pages, and include a minimum of 3 scholarly resources.  APA format.

These questions need to be answered a short essay answer for each question with the citation right below the answer not on a refrence page. 200 words minmum on each question. No plagrisim.



1. Chapter 1: What is cognitive psychology?


2. Chapter 1: How did cognitive psychology emerge as a major force in psychology?


3. Chapter 1: What is a cognitive model, and how have cognitive models been used to understand the mind?


4. Chapter 3: Why are sensation and perception important topics to cognitive psychologists?


5. Chapter 3: What are the major theories of attention and the experimental support for them?


6. Chapter 3: What have cerebral imaging techniques told us about attention?  


7. Chapter 4: What are the main issues regarding object recognition?


8. Chapter 4: What is Gestalt psychology, and how does the theory account for perception?


9. Chapter 4: What are the main features of the following ideas regarding pattern recognition: template matching, geon theory, feature analysis, and prototype formation?


10. Chapter 5: How much information can you hold in short-term memory?


11. Chapter 5: What is “chunking” of information, and how does it increase our capacity for storing knowledge?


12. Chapter 5: What type of memories are the easiest to remember? Why?


13. Chapter 6: What is meant by level of recall, levels of processing, and self reference effect?


14. Chapter 6: What is episodic and semantic memory?


15. Chapter 6: Discuss evidence for the existence of two memory stores.


16. Chapter 7: Discuss the link between mnemonics and college success.


17. Chapter 7: Discuss the link between expertise and brain function.


18. Chapter 7: What are the three factors that make a mnemonic, a mnemonic?


19. Chapter 8: What important historical events lead to the contemporary studies of consciousness?


20. Chapter 8: How can consciousness be studies scientifically?


21. Chapter 8: Describe the stages of sleep.


22. Chapter 9: Why has the study of words and language been a favorite topic of psychologists interested in knowledge and its representation?


23. Chapter 9: What features identify the following: set-theoretical model, semantic feature-comparison model, network model, prepositional networks, neurocognitive model?


24. Chapter 9: What have studies of amnesic patients told us about the structure of memory? 25. Chapter 10: How were the early studies of mental imagery and the testing of mental attributes related?


26. Chapter 10: What are the main features of (a) the dual-coding hypothesis, (b) the conceptual-propositional hypothesis, and (c) the functional-equivalency hypothesis?


27. Chapter 10: How does a person’s bias influence the type of mental map he or she might form?  


28. Chapter 11: How do psychologists differ from linguists in the study of language?


29. Chapter 11: What are the basic features of transformational grammar?


30. Chapter 11: What is the linguistic-relativity hypothesis? What support has been given for this hypothesis? And what evidence is against the hypothesis?


31. Chapter 13: How do cognitive psychologists define “thinking,” and how does thinking differ from concept formation? From logic?


32. Chapter 13: What are the major components of a syllogism?


33. Chapter 13: What are Venn diagrams? Take a basic argument and illustrate it in a Venn diagram.


34. Chapter 14: List some famous people you consider to be creative. What are the features that define creativity in them?


35. Chapter 14: How does functional fixity make creative solutions difficult?


36. Chapter 14: What recent experiments in genetics portend a new way of looking at intelligence?



Imagine that you are scheduled to interview a practicing psychologist about what his/her job is like. This is known as an “information interview.”  If you could only ask 5 ethics related questions what would they be?  Give this careful thought. 

You only have 5 questions–what key aspects of the profession, with ethics particularly in mind, will you focus on?

Write your 5 questions and below each construct a hypothetical response.  How would your interviewee answer each?

Note:  You do not have to be an expert on professional ethics to complete this assignment. Base the responses on what you have learned about professional ethics in the course. 


Development of 5 interview questions to ask psychologist

Hypothetical responses to the 5 interview questions demonstrate knowledge of ethical guidelines (250-300 words per response)

Compliance with APA paper source crediting and formatting standards.

Minimum of three scholarly resources are used

Minimal to no grammar, spelling or basic writing errors

Assignment is 5-6 pages, not including title page or references page

  Identifying Relevant Theories and Models

To complete this assignment, use the required APA “Identifying Relevant Theories and Models Template,” linked in the Resources. Address the following sections: Theory Identification: Review three theories that you feel might be appropriate for addressing the client’s sexual problem. Include a section on how neuroscience has facilitated our understanding of the client’s problem. Pick the theory you believe best represents the client’s situation, and provide a rationale for your selection. In addition, describe a systems perspective that provides an understanding of family and other systems theories and major models of family and related interventions as it pertains to human sexuality. Reference: Continue to build the Reference section by adding the references you utilized to complete this section of your treatment plan. THIS IS THE CASE THAT I NEED TO WRITE ABOUT


Client is a 22 year old female. She states she has come to counseling because she wants to do a better job knowing herself and be brave enough to let others know her too. Client reports that she came out as bisexual several months ago and has had mixed reactions to this announcement. She states that she has told a few friends and some of them have disowned her. She also states that she has not told her parents or her best friend because she is worried that the same thing might happen (being disowned). She reports being conflicted about her sexuality for the past 4 or 5 years and states that she has known that she was different for a long time. She reports that she did not do anything about this in high school and ignored how she felt because she was worried about what others would say. She states now that she is in college and on her own that she feels it is safer to be able to explore her sexuality. She reports three relationships with men and two relationships with women but the relationships with women were a secret. She states that the last woman broke up with her because the client insisted on secrecy.

Client reports a stable family environment growing up in a two-parent home. She reports that her mother was very controlling and tried to make her do ‘all sorts of things’ while she was growing up. She states she mostly complied because she did not want to get into trouble. She reports that her dad was somewhat dismissive and allowed her mom to ‘control the house’. She states that she received good grades throughout high school and was basically ‘a stellar child’. She reports that she played basketball and tennis and was interested in sports her junior and senior year. She reports one older brother and one younger sister and strong relationships with both siblings. She reports that she has lived away from home for the past three years with the first year on campus and the last two years living in a house with friends. She has been part of a sorority since her freshman year and feels very connected to the women who also are part of the sorority. She is worried that if they find out about her secret, they might kick her out of the sorority. Client states that she is studying environmental sciences and is happy with this choice.

Client reports little income and is primarily supported by her parents. She states she works part-time on campus in the dean’s office and she likes this job, but she knows she needs to find something different that is more in her field of study. She reports no drug use, but she does reports some alcohol use. She states she primarily drinks when she is at parties with her sorority sisters. She reports no past or current legal problems. She reports no medical problems. She states that she has grown up Catholic, but she is currently not practicing. She states that she believes there is a God but she does not know how to reconcile this belief with her thoughts and feelings about herself. She states that her faith only makes her feel guilt. She states that she is worried that she is bisexual and that she is never going to ‘pick a side’. Her gay and lesbian friends are always joking around with her because she just ‘falls in the middle’. She reports this is her only real problem of concern. Her grades are As and Bs and she is on track to graduate in the fall.

DUE DATE IS [email protected]

Natalie was growing concerned about her daughter Brandi’s school performance. Her grades had dropped since the beginning of the school year, and she seemed reluctant to go to school. On some days, she complained of vague symptoms, such as stomachache or headache. On other days, she simply did not get out of bed. Natalie took her to the doctor, but there was no definitive diagnosis. She questioned Brandi about any problems at school, but Brandi was uncommonly quiet. Natalie then looked at Brandi’s Facebook page and saw a series of comments from Brandi’s friends about a school bully. When Natalie confronted Brandi, the child broke down crying and told the whole story. Another girl, who was two years ahead of her in school, was bullying her. She would tease Brandi in school, leave nasty messages on her Facebook page, and even threatened her on several occasions.

Natalie was furious and immediately arranged a meeting with the teacher and school principal. The school officials attempted to address the problem by speaking to the girl and her parents. The parents placed their daughter in treatment; she was diagnosed with a behavior disorder and put on medication, which seemed to work. Both the girl’s parents and the school officials explained to Natalie that the girl had an underlying medical condition that caused her to become angry and lack impulse control. The school officials were reluctant to suspend the girl because it was “not her fault” but rather a “biological factor” causing the behavior.

Natalie was still upset. She did not understand why her own daughter should suffer. She had a nagging suspicion that the bully’s parents were using the biological cause as an excuse for their daughter’s bad behavior.

Research the biological causes of crime and the eugenics movement using the textbook, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet.

Based on the scenario, and drawing on your readings and research, respond to the following:Why do you think some people are troubled by the idea that crime has a biological cause? Support your response using an article from the popular media presenting the biological argument for criminal behavior.In what way may views of biological causes of crime be related to the eugenics movement? Give reasons using a scholarly, peer-reviewed article either for or against the eugenics movement.

Write your initial response in 4–6 paragraphs.

 compare Erikson and Freud’s theoretical framework. Make sure to identify and explain key differences (and similarities) between these two theoretical frameworks. Conclude with your perception of which theoretical framework not only fits most with your own view of human nature but may be most applicable or useful in your future career aspirations