Unit8Disc1QDA Application of t Tests

For this discussion: Identify a research question from your professional life or career specialization that can be addressed by an independent samples t test. Indicate why a t test would be the appropriate analysis for this research question. Describe the variables and their scale of measurement. Discuss the expected outcome (for example, “The Group 1 mean score will be significantly greater than the Group 2 mean score because…”)


Respond to the Discussion topics below. Your original response should be at least 350 words and should reflect the fact that you have completed the assigned Readings for the week. Remember, this is your chance to illustrate not only your understanding, but also your mastery of the materials for the unit. Use your words wisely so the posting has substance and includes examples and explanations. Limit the use of direct quotes, and do your best to critically evaluate and synthesize the literature in your own words wherever possible. Make sure to include in-text citations and a reference list as appropriate.

In this unit’s Discussion Boards, you will relate developmental theories to the specific issues that are faced by children in their middle childhood. Typically, this is a time of great academic and social development as they enter their formal schooling years. Discussion Topic

As children become more competent in their language skills, they interact more often with peers to learn and to socialize. When children struggle with speech or have reading problems, they often also struggle with making friends. Using the theories from your Reading and any other peer-reviewed resource, respond to the following questions. One of the tasks of middle childhood is in developing age-appropriate skills (e.g., academic and social) that help children to feel confident in their overall abilities. Using Erikson’s theory of psychosocial theory in your explanation, how would you describe how children’s sense of self develops from both social interactions with peers and adults? What are some interventions that can be used to help children who feel inferior to their peers gain more confidence? How does learned helplessness increase feelings of inferiority? After evaluating your classmates’ proposed interventions, what suggestions would you offer to better facilitate their plans? Remember that psychologists often work on teams, so use this opportunity to build interventions as a class (team).

Next, read “A trip to the zoo: Children’s words and photographs” research article. Note the key differences in photographs and descriptions between the younger and older children. Use this article and your understanding of cognitive development (especially Piaget, Vygotsky, or information processing) to respond to the questions. Using the cognitive development theory of your choice, compare the differences in photographs and descriptions between children in the youngest group and the older children. Why are their perceptions of what they saw so different from each other? Propose a follow-up study that would support your conclusions about the cognitive differences between younger and older children. Be creative and use the same cognitive development theory as you did to respond to the first question.

You need to write  a response to the peer post which includes using references.

Response are expected to be substantive in nature and reference the assigned readings, as well as other theoretical, empirical, or professional literature to support your views and writings. Reference your sources using standard APA guidelines.  

Response Guidelines  Respond to at least one other learner in a manner that advances the discussion in a meaningful way. Contribute to the conversation by asking questions, respectfully debating positions, or responding freely to the topic at hand.

Peer Response 

According to Barnett, Behnke, Rosenthal, and Koocher (2007), counselors, at some point in time, are confronted with a wide range of ethical dilemmas and may be unsure of how to proceed in some situations. There are different approaches used by counselors when faced with an ethical dilemma (Dalen, 2006).  In regards to an ethical dilemma, counselors and clients, according to the American Counseling association (2014, A.1.c.), should devise a plan that will promise success and are consistent with the abilities and developmental level of the client. Also, in regards to the ethical dilemma, the counselor should inform the client there are strict ethical standards regarding client confidentiality. The counselor has the responsibility to protect the confidential information of the client (American Counseling Association, 2014, B.1.c.). Also, according to the American Counseling Association (2014), “counselors should act to avoid harm to the client” (A.4.a. p.4). The counselor, according to the American Counseling Association (2014, Section I), should take steps to resolve the ethical dilemma, and should strive to resolve the ethical dilemma with direct and open communication with the client. If the counselor is unable to resolve the ethical dilemma, the counselor should consult with their supervisor and their colleagues (American Counseling Association, 2014, Section I).   Client Case:  In the ethical dilemma involving Jim, I would have his blood alcohol level tested to see if his blood alcohol level is over the legal limit. Then I would inform Jim that since he has been drinking, that I could not let him drive to work and then I would confiscate his keys. Then I would explain to Jim, since he has been drinking I would call a cab for him to take him home, since I cannot get in touch with his parents.

 Discuss the impact that culture, climate, and interventions influence organizational development.  



When looking at the idea of psychological testing, one sees that the specifics are meant to be noted for the results to test what the topic, that is chosen, ends up being. These tests end up being short cuts to the information needed within the discussion being analyzed. These tests often help in court cases to prove different given factors that are often not determinable without the non biased being presented.

One example of the testing would be the child custody cases that arise in the court system. The courts often use a Parent Responsibility Evaluator (PRE) to evaluate and understand how each parent is using there parenting time. Sometimes within this process the evaluator, normally a licensed therapist, will give different forms of evaluation paperwork, or tests to determine the mental state of the parents involved. This process can be damaging for a parent if they are not honest during the PRE and the judge or magistrate is able to see through the process (Patterson, 1996). However the testing is useful to give insight as to how each parent gets along, or tries, with the other.

In the PRE process both the personality and screening tests would be helpful as they show how the parents are personally and they also screen for different given factors within the custody process. This would include abuse, gatekeeping, emotional damages forced upon the children and harassment being done on either side. The strengths with these tests are that they both focus upon presented facts as well as statements that can be verified (Reynolds & Livingston, 2013). The weaknesses would include dishonesty on either side, as well as the children being afraid to speak on behalf of one side or the other. My research comes from my own personal experience with the above testing processes and the amount of time it can take to prove your worth as a healthy, loving, parent.

Patterson, C. H. (1996). MultiCultural Counseling: From Diversity to Universality. Journal of Counseling and Development , p. 1.

Reynolds, C., & Livingston, R. (2013). Mastering modern psychological testing: Theory & methods. Pearson Higher Education.

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The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personality test which is used to assess personality types into one of sixteen possible outcomes. The test determines personalities by posing questions and assessing responses according to a Likert-scale. From this, a four-level personality type is provided. Personality types within the MBTI are assigned between extraversion and introversion,, sensing and intuiting, thinking and feeling, and judging or perceiving.

When assessing whether an individual is introverted or extroverted, the MBTI poses statements such as “I feel comfortable in groups and like working in them.” From this, the individual taking the test choses their level of agreement or disagreement within the Likert-scale. Those who are viewed as introverted are more likely to enjoy time by themselves while extroverts typically enjoy more social environments. To assess whether someone is more thinking or feeling oriented, questions are posed whether an individual makes choices which are more logical in nature or are more influenced by personal values. When making assessments as to whether an individual is more sensing or intuiting in nature, questions are posed which assess if they are more inclined to make choices based upon physical reality versus that of which is made through “gut instinct.” This leaves the last level of the MBTI as that which assess whether individuals are more judging in nature or more perceiving in nature; within this category participants are assessed as to whether they are more structured in nature or enjoy a more flexible style.

These tests, and the MBTI specifically, are frequently utilized for the purpose of career development. Some institutions assess potential candidates to determine if they are appropriate for a specific position based upon where they fall within the personality assessment. This test demonstrates strengths in that it is easy for those without a background in psychology to understand. The assessment is easily accessible, and is very straight-forward for those taking the test. However, personality tests such as the MBTI which require self-disclosure and self-assessment from the test taker may provide invalid results as they are not taking assessments from an objective perspective.


Myersbriggs.org. (2015). The Myers & Briggs Foundation – The 16 MBTI® Types. [online] Available at: http://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/the-16-mbti-types.htm [Accessed 29 Nov. 2014].

Crystle T


Within the ethical issues of psychological testing, we have to take into consideration multiple aspects. For instance, we need to look at the competence of the psychologist, informed consent, the right to result, confidentiality, test security, divided loyalties, invasion of privacy, labeling and dehumanization. I have chosen to discuss informed consent and confidentiality. According to Leach (2007), “Ethics codes are designed to protect the public by prescribing behaviors professionals are expected to exhibit” (p. 71). Within the code of ethics, it may have many different emphases, and purposes that depend upon the culture, country, and interpretation.

When looking at informed consent, it is standard for the psychologist to receive this consent before testing and then again before giving the results to a third party. Also, the psychologist has to inform the client the reasons why the assessment is being administered within the language they can understand. In eight countries it is required that psychologists inform the client of the purpose of the assessment. Informed consent is essential in the aspect that you should know why and how you are being tested, for no one should have anything done to them without knowing why or the risks.

Confidentiality is still to this day an issue within the field of mental health. According to Martindale (2009), “It is generally acknowledged that users must be informed about the relative limits of confidentiality and legislation surrounding this, as a part of the process of generating informed consent” (p. 357). Some types of communication are considered privileged when discussed between a professional and an individual but cannot be discussed with a third party. When this confidentiality is breached there can be penalties. There are times when confidentiality conflicts with the professional’s duty to protect an individual, such as suicidal or homicidal ideations, or abuse. There are essential aspects of confidentiality due to being able to promote a trusting environment.


Leach, M. M., & Oakland, T. (2007). Ethics Standards Impacting Test Development and Use: A Review of 31 Ethics Codes Impacting Practices in 35 Countries. International Journal Of Testing, 7(1), 71-88.

Martindale, S. J., Chambers, E., & Thompson, A. R. (2009). Clinical psychology service users’ experiences of confidentiality and informed consent: A qualitative analysis. Psychology & Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 82(4), 355-368.

Reynolds, C. R., & Livingston, R. B. (2013). Mastering modern psychological testing: Theory & methods. Pearson Higher Ed. ISBN-10: 020548350X • ISBN-13: 9780205483501

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Heather R.


Ethics is one of the most important parts of any field of study. There are several factors that need to be considered when doing research and creating and using psychological tests. Two factors that I would like to focus some attention on are reliability and validity and conflict of interest.

When it comes to reliability and validity it is very important that instruments used in assessments have been put to the test and proven to give reliable results. It can be difficult to find the right assessment tool that will help your research answer the appropriate questions. But it is necessary to find an assessment tool that has been tried before, hopefully with a similar population of participants, so that we can more accurately rely on its results. Reliability in terms of psychological assessment is looking for accurate results that found consistently when an assessment is used multiple times (Reynolds, 2013 p.110). Validity is more concerned with scores and results of an assessment being appropriate to the subject the assessment is focusing on (p.155). So in short you want to find a test that gives accurate and consistent results, whose results appropriately identify the subject you are studying. Without reliability and validity, an assessment can give a skewed and misleading view of whatever topic is being discussed.

Conflict of interest is a growing concern in assessment. With pharmaceutical companies funding studies and other similar relationships in most areas where research is necessary, it is important to be open about any links that may create conflicts of interest and hopefully keep them to a minimum. These types of relationship compromise the objectivity in the researcher (APA, 2002). When funding for your work and your paycheck lay in the balance, it is easy to see what results would most benefit the researcher moving forward in their career. However, research results should be free from any obligation, including the preferences of the researcher themselves. Therefore, it is best to eliminate any ties to the research, which can sometimes be nearly impossible to do. As conflicts are bound to happen, it is most important to disclose any and all conflicts of interest to the appropriate audiences.

American Psychological Association (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspxLinks to an external site.

Reynolds, C. R., & Livingston, R. B. (2013). Mastering modern psychological testing: Theory & methods. Pearson Higher Ed. ISBN-10: 020548350X • ISBN-13: 9780205483501

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Ecology of Peer Groups

Using the Library, search for an article that supports your work. You can find peer-reviewed resources in the Library under PsycARTICLES database. This will also help to broaden your understanding of the topic being studied each week.

How does peer acceptance or rejection influence the socialization of children? Use Erikson’s psychosocial development theory to explain how the ego crisis relates to peer acceptance or rejection. When peer rejection occurs, describe the maladaptive patterns that take place. Describe how friendships could endure despite individual differences and peer rejection. Minimum 400 words 

Main Post -300 words- APA Format must use citations