8 pages research paper needs to be done by Tuesday May 3, at 12:00PM before I go to class. Message me if you can type an 8 page paper in little time. Thank you!

 

Please provide a short paper, is 2–3 pages, 600 words minimum, due Thursday May 5.

 

Trace some of the major contributions of an ethnic or “minority” group to U.S. culture, for example, to music, the arts, dance, or theater. There are many other possibilities! Develop your composition based on an area of interest to you in the arts.

 

 

 

Double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, 1-inch margins, and APA citations.

 

 

 

 3-page paper that includes the following:Explain the differences in parenting style of “collectivist” and “individualist” parents. Describe how each couple would differ in their expectations of each of the children.In light of the differing styles and expectations, analyze the points of conflict that would arise when the parents were swapped. Be sure to identify how the collectivist parents would respond to the individualist children as well as how the individualist parents would react to the collectivist children.Compare the grandparents’ role in the collectivist family to the grandparents’ role in the individualist family. Identify the conflicts that these roles would cause when the parents were swapped. Then speculate about how the “new” mother and father may wish to change the existing roles?Offer your conclusion about how you anticipate the show will end. Will any of the family members adjust their beliefs or behaviors?

ATTENTION!!!

 

1.      This is for a Discussion Board, so formatting is irrelevant.

2.      I’d rather work with a professional who has excellent scholarly vocab.  Otherwise, I would have to re-edit the work, and I will not have time. American/Business English lingo. NO REGIONAL ENGLISH, PLEASE.

 

REQUIREMENTS

 

When performing a hypothesis test, you must make an assumption in order to perform it. Assume that the hypothesis you are testing (the null hypothesis) is true. This assumption allows you to calculate the probability of the test results. You then use that probability to decide whether or not to accept the hypothesis and the claim associated with it. The more likely the results, the more readily you accept the hypothesis.

 

This kind of analysis can be used to evaluate any idea for which there are enough facts or data. For example, what about the premise that Jesus is the Son of God? Josh McDowell takes a similar approach to answering this question in his book, Evidence That Demands a Verdict (Campus Crusade for Christ, 1972).

 

In his book, McDowell collects a variety of information that attests to the Bible’s validity and Jesus’ claims to being the Son of God. He includes the interesting results of a large volume of research. In the section about messianic prophecy, he quotes the probabilistic analysis of Peter Stoner in Science Speaks (Moody Press, 1963). Stoner used the assumption that Jesus was just a man and not the Son of God to perform a probability analysis and hypothesis test on some messianic prophecies. In this case the hypothesis was that Jesus was not the foretold Messiah or the Son of God. He then examined the probability of a selection of prophecies coming true if Jesus was in fact not divine.

 

Using a selection of 8 prophecies, Stoner estimated that the probability of all 8 prophecies being fulfilled is 1 in 1017. Using the language of hypothesis tests, this means that you would reject the hypothesis that Jesus is not the Messiah for any α > 10-17. To put it another way, α > 0.00000000000000001. The smallest α that is normally used for a hypothesis test is α = 0.01. This means that you can safely reject the hypothesis that Jesus is not the Messiah or the Son of God.

 

For more on this, see Josh McDowell’s book Evidence That Demands a Verdict. Peter Stoner’s work can be found in Science Speaks, published by Moody press. Stoner’s book has recently been rereleased in e-book format. You can find it in the Module/Week 4 Additional Materials folder.

 

The references for the 8 Old Testament prophecies that Peter Stoner analyzed are listed below along with the verse references for their fulfillment. It is likely that most students in this course believe that Jesus Christ is divine, so listing probabilities of Him doing certain things is irrelevant. However, Stoner says to the skeptical, “Okay, let’s have it your way for a second. If Jesus of Nazareth was just an ordinary man, what is the probability that he could fulfill all the prophecies by chance?”

Old Testament Prophecies                          New Testament Fulfillment

Micah 5:2                                                       Matthew 2:4–6

Malachi 3:1                                                    Mark 1:2-8

Zechariah 9:9                                                  Matthew 21:4–11

Psalms 41:9                                                    Luke 22:21

Zechariah 11:12                                              Matthew 26:15

Zechariah 11:13                                              Matthew 27:3–10

Isaiah 53:7                                                      Mark 14: 60-61

Psalms 22:16                                                  John 19:17–18

 

In Discussion Board Forum 2, post a thread that includes the following:

1.       Type out each Old Testament prophecy with the verse reference followed by the New Testament verse with the fulfillment. (10 points)

2.       Which one of the 8 prophecies and its fulfillment spoke to you the most? Write at least 150 words about this verse and your thoughts about it. (10 points)

3.       These prophecies and their fulfillment are definitely evidence that Jesus is the Messiah. People have different opinions about whether or not there is absolute proof of this. Do you think these verses prove that Jesus is the Messiah? Write at least 250 words about your opinion on this. Be sure to explain the reasons behind your thinking. Whether you believe that Jesus is the Messiah or not, please give your honest opinion. Any honest, thoughtful opinion will receive full credit. (12 points)

 

4.       Submit replies of at least 50 words each to 2 classmates. (8 points)

 

 

This is a Thesis Driven paper

Not an opinion paper

Not a research paper 

 

 

The Topic

 

 

 

Kant’s objection to Anselm’s Ontological Argument is that existence in reality is not a great-making quality because it is not a quality at all. Explain Kant’s objection, explain Rowe’s critique of Kant’s objection, and then defend Kant against Rowe.

Please clear from plagarism 

Module 4 – SLPSTRESS AND THE CARDIOVASCULAR AND DIGESTIVE SYSTEMSNote: If you have trouble viewing some of the course materials, install Quicktime and the Adobe Shockwave Player, both of which can be downloaded free from the Internet.

In this SLP we will investigate the effects of stress on the digestive system, including its effect on regulating blood sugar levels. As you can see, dysregulation of blood sugar levels can cause metabolic problems and unusually high or low blood sugar levels, such as in diabetes. View the trends for diabetes in America demonstrated in the graph.

Now continue to your readings for this SLP assignment:

Why We Gain Weight When We’re Stressed—And How Not To, in Psychology Today

Cortisol Connection: Tips on Managing Stress and Weight, by Christine A. Maglione-Garves, Len Kravitz, Ph.D., and Suzanne Schneider, Ph.D.

Part I: Stress and Weight Gain

Using complete sentences in paragraph format, address the following questions:

What hormones are implicated in the weight gain response that some individuals experience when stressed? Which type of stressor elicits this response? How does this influence fat deposition? What role do dietary choices and cravings play in stress-related weight gain?

Part II: Blood Sugar Regulation

Now review the article from the Dartmouth Undergraduate Science Journal:

The Physiology of Stress: Cortisol and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

How is the pathway described here different from those described in the first two articles? Which type of stressors influence the relationship between cortisol and insulin? Are the health risks different?

Part III: Conclusions

In a conclusion paragraph, compare and contrast the influence of short- and long-term stress effects on blood sugar regulation and fat deposition. Are these responses related to health risks in the cardiovascular system? Explain the connections between the body’s response to stress described in these articles and other health risks such a high cholesterol and hypertension.SLP Assignment Expectations

Organize this assignment using the subtitles that summarize each group of questions. Answer each question under the subtitle using complete sentences that relate back to the question. Be sure to include a references section at the end of your assignment that lists the websites and articles used above and any additional resources you used to research your answers. Follow the format provided in the Background page.

 The Physiology of Stress: Cortisol and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

Posted by Michael Randall ’12 / In Fall 2010 / February 3, 20111.1K 

We all know the feeling whether it’s your hands trembling as you flip through a blank exam or trouble sleeping while you worry about approaching deadlines. Stress is an inevitable aspect of life through college and beyond. While everyone understands the symptoms of the stress response, few know the underlying physiological mechanisms. When we probe beneath the surface of our anxiety, an elegant balance of stimuli and responses emerges. This paper will present a broad discussion of stress: how stress is defined, the chemistry and physiology underlying it at the cellular level, and the micro and macro level consequences of the stress response.

Defining Stress

Understanding the biochemical interactions that constitute the stress response requires a definition of stress. In the realm of biology, stress refers to what happens when an organism fails to respond appropriately to threats (1). While the “threats” humans face today often take more benign forms compared to those our hunter-gatherer ancestors faced, they can be equally taxing on our bodies.

Some stress, of course, can be beneficial. The pressure it exerts can be an incentive to accomplish necessary goals. Often, however, stress reaches chronic, harmful levels, and deleterious consequences follow, from compromised immune function to weight gain to developmental impairment (2). The intensity of the stress response is governed largely by glucocorticoids, the primary molecules involved in the stress response. Stress can be ephemeral and beneficial, or it can be long-lasting and harmful, causing suffocation, depression, and paralysis (3). Proper stress management takes on great importance given the wide range of bodily systems impacted by stress hormones.

Neurochemistry of Stress

Schematic diagram of how stress affects the body.

The human stress response involves a complex signaling pathway among neurons and somatic cells. While our understanding of the chemical interactions underlying the stress response has increased vastly in recent years, much remains poorly understood. The roles of two peptide hormones, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine-vassopressin (AVP), have been widely studied. Stimulated by an environmental stressor, neurons in the hypothalamus secrete CRH and AVP.

CRH, a short polypeptide, is transported to the anterior pituitary, where it stimulates the secretion of corticotropin (4). Consequently, corticotropin stimulates increased production of corticosteroids including cortisol, the primary actor directly impacting the stress response (5). Vasopressin, a small hormone molecule, increases reabsorption of water by the kidneys and induces vasoconstriction, the contraction of blood vessels, thereby raising blood pressure (6). Together, CRH and vasopressin activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis comprises the system of feedback interactions among the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal glands (7).

In sum, the hypothalamus releases CRH and vasopressin, which activate the HPA axis. CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary to release corticotropin, which travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal cortex, where corticoptropin then upregulates cortisol production. Vasopressin, the other hormone secreted by the hypothalamus, stimulates the cortical collecting ducts of the kidneys to increase reuptake of water, resulting in smaller volumes of urine formed. As the next section will illuminate, corticosteroids such as cortisol act across the entire body to promulgate the stress response (8).

 

Cortisol: Stress Hormone

 

Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone synthesized from cholesterol by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family in the zona fasciculata, the middle area of the adrenal cortex (9). Regulated via the HPA axis, cortisol is the primary hormone responsible for the stress response. Expressed at the highest levels in the early morning, cortisol’s main function is to restore homeostasis following exposure to stress (10). The effects of cortisol are felt over virtually the entire body and impact several homeostatic mechanisms. While cortisol’s primary targets are metabolic, it also affects ion transport, the immune response, and even memory.

Cortisol counters insulin by encouraging higher blood sugar and stimulating gluconeogenesis, the metabolic pathway that synthesizes glucose from oxaloacetate. The presence of cortisol triggers the expression of enzymes critical for gluconeogenesis, facilitating this increase in glucose production. Conversely, it also stimulates glycogen synthesis in the liver, which decreases net blood sugar levels (11). In these ways, cortisol carefully regulates the level of glucose circulating through the bloodstream. Cortisol’s beneficial effects are clear from its role in metabolism: during states of fasting, when blood glucose has been depleted, cortisol ensures a steady supply of glucose via gluconeogenesis.

Cortisol’s role in ion regulation, particularly regarding sodium and potassium, has also been widely studied. Cortisol prevents cells from losing sodium and accelerates the rate of potassium excretion. This helps regulates bodily pH, bringing it back into equilibrium after a destabilizing event. Cortisol’s ability to regulate the action of cellular sodium-potassium pumps has even led to speculation that it originally evolved as a sodium transporter (12).

Structure of cortisol.

Cortisol’s weakening effects on the immune response have also been well documented. T-lymphocyte cells are an essential component of cell-mediated immunity. T-cells respond to cytokine molecules called interleukins via a signaling pathway. Cortisol blocks T-cells from proliferating by preventing some T-cells from recognizing interleukin signals. It also stifles inflammation due to inhibition of histamine secretion (13). Cortisol’s ability to prevent the promulgation of the immune response can render individuals suffering from chronic stress highly vulnerable to infection.

A role for cortisol in memory has also been demonstrated. The hippocampus, the region of the brain where memories are processed and stored, contains many cortisol receptors. While normal cortisol levels have no adverse effects on the hippocampus, excess cortisol overwhelms the hippocampus and actually causes atrophy. Studies of the elderly have indicated that those with elevated cortisol levels display significant memory loss resulting from hippocampus damage, but the exact age range at risk is unclear. There is a reprieve, however, for the chronically stressed: the damage incurred is usually reversible (14).

Finally, cortisol participates in an inhibitory feedback loop by blocking the secretion of corticotripin-releasing hormone, preventing the HPA axis interactions central to glucocorticoid secretion. Many in the scientific community speculate that chronic levels of high stress disrupt the delicate feedback balance, resulting in the failure of feedback inhibition to operate and the continued release of cortisol (15).

 

Sleep Deprivation, Caffeine, and Alcohol All Increase Cortisol 

 

Stressed Dartmouth students often sacrifice sleep while increasing consumption of caffeine and alcohol, all of which impact cortisol levels and thus, the physiological markers of the stress response. While no connection has yet been established linking sleep deprivation to long-term HPA axis activity, acute sleep loss confuses the HPA axis and disrupts negative glucocorticoid feedback regulation (16). Leproult et al. found that plasma cortisol levels were elevated by up to 45 percent after sleep deprivation, an increase that has implications including immune compromise, cognitive impairment, and metabolic disruption (17). These consequences should give pause to anyone contemplating an all-nighter the day before an exam.

The relationships among caffeine, stress, and cortisol secretion will also be of interest to Dartmouth’s caffeinated masses. Repeated doses of caffeine over a single day result in markedly increased cortisol levels, regardless of the stressor involved or the sex of the individual. Although the extent of the link has not been fully elucidated, a positive relationship clearly exists between caffeine intake and cortisol release, and this relationship is exacerbated when other stressors are introduced. Thus, supplementing a lack of sleep with multiple cups of coffee or energy drinks actually reinforces the negative effects of the stress response and further undermines performance. The benefits of caffeine intake must be balanced with its implications for cortisol secretion. (18)

Often, students decide to celebrate after a stressful episode by consuming alcohol, often in large quantities over a short time frame. Ironically, this method of releasing stress actually stimulates the HPA axis and encourages the manufacture and release of cortisol. In fact, the elevation in glucocortioid levels as a result of alcohol consumption can be greater than the elevation from stressful stimuli. Alcohol probably functions to activate the HPA axis by disinhibiting it: alcohol depresses the nerve cells responsible for HPA inhibition, thereby elevating HPA axis activity (19). As a result, the adrenal cortex secretes higher levels of cortisol. It is hardly surprising, then, that Dartmouth students and college students generally complain of the consequences of considerable anxiety and pressure: our common responses to stress, lack of sleep, caffeine intake, and alcohol consumption act in conjunction to raise the amount of cortisol in our bodies, augmenting the very stress we seek to combat.

 

Stress and Health: Short-Term and Long-Term Effects

Many of us know from experience that stress compromises the immune response, an empirical observation buttressed by our understanding of cortisol’s physiological effects. Indeed, the effects of acute and chronic stress on human health are myriad and severe. During periods of increased stress, “the immune cells are being bathed in molecules which are essentially telling them to stop fighting,” according to Dr. Esther Sternberg (20). These molecules, namely cortisol, suppress the immune system and inflammatory pathways, rendering the body more susceptible to disease.

High levels of stress, even over relatively short periods and in vastly different contexts, tend to produce similar results: prolonged healing times, reduction in ability to cope with vaccinations, and heightened vulnerability to viral infection (21). The long-term, constant cortisol exposure associated with chronic stress produces further symptoms, including impaired cognition, decreased thyroid function, and accumulation of abdominal fat, which itself has implications for cardiovascular health. The bottom line is that both episodes of acute stress and more prolonged stressful circumstances precipitate lower levels of general health, and exposure to such stress should be minimized. In the most extreme cases, Cushing’s Syndrome, characterized by dangerously high cortisol levels, can result. Those afflicted with Cushing’s experience rapid weight gain, hyperhydrosis, and hypercalcemia, along with various psychological and endocrine problems (22).

Conclusion

Stress is unavoidable. Our bodies are designed to react to our environment in an effort to preserve homeostasis. Arming ourselves with an understanding of the mechanisms, agonists, and antagonists of the stress response, however, positions us to minimize stress and its impact on our minds and bodies. It is both a blessing and a curse that the HPA axis evolved to be so sensitive to factors like circadian rhythm, caffeine, and alcohol. We are experts at maintaining homeostasis but often novices at managing stressful circumstances. The good news is that stress levels rest largely on our own behavior and decisions and that we can optimize our bodies’ responses to stress based on how we live our daily lives.

 

fore working on this discussion, please read the article by Shulz (2004), watch the Generation RX: Resisting the Culture of Overmedication video, and review the information in the textbook regarding psychotropic medication as well as any relevant Instructor Guidance.

For this discussion, you will enter into another conversation on an ongoing controversy and contemporary issue regarding abnormal psychology. Specifically, what is the role of “big pharma” (i.e., major pharmaceutical companies that determine the ways in which health care issues are researched and publicized) in the diagnosis and treatment of psychopathology?

It is absolutely essential to read the article by Shulz (2004) and watch the Generation RX video because they provide insights into how issues regarding psychotropic medication are depicted in popular media. Be sure to read your instructor’s initial post before responding.

As you enter into this conversation, carefully consider the historical information you reviewed regarding big pharma&rsquos impact and influence within abnormal psychology. Take a moment to relate this historical background to the current ethical, clinical, and social implications when considering the use of psychotropic medication for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Interpret specific symptoms and syndromes from big pharma&rsquos advertising campaigns and critically evaluate and comment upon the necessity of these medications for the indicated psychiatric disorders. 

Again, the goal of this discussion forum is to have a single dynamic and respectful conversation about big pharma&rsquos role in the diagnosis and treatment of psychopathology, not a series of 20 to 30 separate conversations. This means every post should be in response to another post. Your instructor will be posting the initial thread to which you will respond. Only start a new discussion thread if you want to address an entirely different theme or question(s) within the discussion subject area. Additionally, only post after first carefully reading what all the others within the thread have written.

A simple agree or disagree statement is insufficient to be counted as a response. When presenting your opinion, cite relevant sources (beyond your text) to support your statements. Do not repeat what your classmates have already written, and do not ignore them if they ask you questions. Any questions asked of you must be answered, including questions from your instructor/professor. Try to keep the conversation moving forward by presenting options, insights, alternative ideas on and/or interpretations of the topics and research.

You must post a response within the discussion on at least three separate days by Day 7, and your posts must total at least 800 words. There is no required word count for individual posts as long as your posts together total at least 800 words. There is no maximum number of posts for any discussion. 

Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your discussion.

  

This assignment provides an opportunity to apply psychological theory in the exploration of a book or film. Students choose a film or book of special interest. The book or film should have content that can be meaningfully explored through application of psychological theory and research. Students can look at some of the later chapters in the text that deal with emotion, motivation, personality, the development of the individual over the life span, health and stress, and psychological disorders and treatment, so that they have a more complete idea of different concepts that might apply.

 

Students might pick a movie or book in which the main character suffers from a psychological disorder or is merely trying to cope with the everyday stress of life.   Students might discuss defense mechanisms or refer to developmental stages in the person’s life that might have been important, or consider the effects of abuse, alcoholism and addiction, etc. Students can approach the subject matter from different perspectives—psychoanalytical, biological, behavioral, cognitive, and/or sociocultural. They can discuss the role emotion, memory, or motivation plays in the character’s development, or the importance of the environment, and influences such as racism and sexism.

 

This is a research-based paper, and the film or book provides only the backdrop for research on a psychological topic. You should use at least one psychological, peer-reviewed reference in addition to the textbook

 

Media Review Paper

Instructions

This assignment provides an opportunity to apply psychological theory in the exploration of a book or film. Students choose a film or book of special interest. The book or film should have content that can be meaningfully explored through application of psychological theory and research. Students can look at some of the later chapters in the text that deal with emotion, motivation, personality, the development of the individual over the life span, health and stress, and psychological disorders and treatment, so that they have a more complete idea of different concepts that might apply.

Students might pick a movie or book in which the main character suffers from a psychological disorder or is merely trying to cope with the everyday stress of life. Students might discuss defense mechanisms or refer to developmental stages in the person’s life that might have been important, or consider the effects of abuse, alcoholism and addiction, etc. Students can approach the subject matter from different perspectives—psychoanalytical, biological, behavioral, cognitive, and/or sociocultural. They can discuss the role emotion, memory, or motivation plays in the character’s development, or the importance of the environment, and influences such as racism and sexism.

This is a research-based paper, and the film or book provides only the backdrop for research on a psychological topic. You should use at least one psychological, peer-reviewed reference in addition to the textbook.

The paper should be 1,200 to 1,500 words, about 5 double-spaced pages.

Refer to the “Psychology Learning Tools” information under Course Resources for help with APA formatting.