Select a research article of interest to you, preferably related to your Research Proposal, and use the Research Evaluation Worksheet to analyze the article. You can use this information to help you form the literature review section of your research proposal.

 The first possible research topic that I might want to explore further as I go through this course is about child development. This is mainly because the development stages greatly determine the future of an individual since childhood development is a major determinant of the life of an adult. The second topic is law and human behavior. The third topic is developmental psychology so as to determine why and how human change in life.  


Your paper should address the following:  DUE  MARCH 26TH  11:30pm on Sakai class Assignment section.


• Symptom picture – describe the symptoms commonly seen in the disorder you have chosen to research.

Prevalence rates – prevalence rates in the US and world. (1pt.)


• Cultural variables – You should list a couple countries your disorder is found in and if it presents differently or with the same symptom picture as seen in the US. You should also include subcultures of the US (e.g. African American, Native American, Hispanic, Asian American). (2 pts.)


• Age of onset and Gender features – What is the average age when symptoms appear that lead to a diagnosis? Is the onset acute or insidious? For Gender features: ex. Bipolar is equally common among adolescents, major depression diagnosed 2X more in females than in males. (1pt.)


• Etiology – Describe the biology and genetics behind the disorder you are researching. E.g. What neurotransmitter systems and subcortical structures of the brain are effected in the disorder you are researching? It may be primarily a biological based disorder such as Bipolar or Schizophrenia, but be sure to address the psychological/emotional issues associated with this disorder. Eg. expressed emotion (EE) with regard to family relations or coping with peers with either bipolar or schizophrenia. Is this highly genetic? Does it run in families such as depression, schizophrenia, bipolar, ADHD, etc? (2 pts.)


• Course – Will it be a lifelong chronic course e.g. childhood-onset schizophrenia or relatively short episodes e.g. depression? How does the presentation change and effect the child/adolescent over developmental stages (e.g. Erickson developmental model)? (1pt)


• Prognosis – What is the end result you expect to see with regard to the symptom picture? E.g. What would the symptom picture look like when the person is 70. E.g. Would the client still have to be on medication? Would they still exhibit the symptoms of the disorder or would most of the symptoms abate? (1pt)


• Current treatment – What is the most effective treatment for your chosen disorder? Explain the main underlying theory of this treatment(s) and explain a technique that could be employed in the treatment plan. E.g. cognitive restructuring for major depression). (1pt)


• A differential diagnosis – You should compare and contrast another disorder ( ONLY ONE) which is similar and how to differentiate it from the main disorder you have chosen to research. In what ways is it similar and in what ways is it dissimilar? E.g. major depression vs Persistent Depressive Disorder. (1pt)


APA style is encouraged but not required

*** No longer than 10 pages – including title and reference pages.

*** Minimum page length 9 pages – including title and reference pages

*** You DO NOT need an abstract for this assignment.

• Must be double spaced (12pt type and Times New Roman)

• Must have within text citations. THIS IS A MUST

• Articles, the DSM-V, books, and online sources are fine (.org more preferable but .com is fine with discretion).


• Try to use empirical sources when possible.  E.g. Journal of Abnormal Psychology



List of Acceptable Disorders for Paper:

Choose any one disorder under the headings


***Make sure that your paper focuses on the childhood or adolescent presentation of the disorder you choose to research.


• Anxiety disorders

o Panic attacks

o Panic Disorder

o Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

o Agoraphobia

o Specific Phobia

o Separation Anxiety disorder (SAD)

o Social Phobia / School Phobia

o Selective Mutism

o Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

o Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)


• Mood disorders

o Major Depression

o Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)

o Double depression

o Seasonal Affective Disorder

o Bipolar I

o Bipolar II

o Cyclothymia

o Rapid Cycling Bipolar


• Behavioral Disorders

o Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

o Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

o Conduct Disorder (CD)

o Intermittent Explosive Disorder

o Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD)


• Intellectual disability (ID) present the different levels of ID.

o Mild

o Moderate

o Severe

o Profound


• Other disorders that also have Intellectual disability

o Fragile X

o Downs Syndrome

o Williams Syndrome

o Angelman’s Disorder

o Prader Willi Syndrome


• Autism spectrum disorders

o Classic autism

o Asperger’s syndrome

o Childhood disintegrative Disorder

o Sensory integration disorder


• Childhood-onset Schizophrenia

• Adolescent-onset Schizophrenia (you can choose to do a specific type with adolescent onset or just adolescent Schizophrenia)

o Schizophreniform

o Schizotypal

o Schizoaffective


• Eating disorders

o Pica

o Childhood rumination Disorder

o Binge eating disorder (BED)

o Infantile Anorexia

o Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

o Posttraumatic Feeding Disorder

o Anorexia nervosa (cover both subtypes)

o Bulimia nervosa (cover both subtypes)

o Orthorexia Disorder

o Failure to thrive


• Substance abuse and dependence disorders (focus should be on one specific type of substance of abuse e.g. alcohol)

o Should cover both what is considered abuse and dependency and how they are different.

If you choose to do your paper on abuse you must choose one type of abuse not all forms of abuse:

• Physical  

• Emotional

• Sexual abuse

• Neglect (in its many forms)


I have added 3 Discussion Questions;  I would like a response to each individual discussion question. 

(1) RE: Discussion – Week 4 Initial PostCOLLAPSE

Logistic regression implies the prediction of probabilities using one predictor (Warner, 2013).  Reporting values in logistic regression are pivotal to convey data in a meaningful and representative way.  Values include, for example, conditional probability, conditional odds, odds ratio, logits, and even slope.  However, each value retains similarities, benefits for reporting, and limitations.  For example, odds have a tendency of presenting difficulties for the audience to interpret (Osborne, 2015).  Additionally, odds may indicate an overestimation or offer the possibility of a more significant effect size.  Moreover, the odds ratio may also depict the option of misinterpretation or misrepresentation (Osborne, 2015).  

According to Osborne (2015), probabilities are easily perceptive by an audience or lay reader and logit predict difficult values, but often defies ordinary least squares regression.  The limitations and benefits of using these values to display data to an audience implicate that the odds ratio is the most effective value to present to readers even though probabilities is perceivable, the odds ratio displays the constant observable influence.  The odds ratio is the most informative value in statistics in conjunction with logistic regression (Osborne, 2015).  Furthermore, the odds ratio provides the necessary information for comprehension of a lay reader.  For example, according to Laureate Education (2017e), the odds ratio is the most effective value to relay when presenting a comparison.     


Laureate Education (Producer). (2017e). Creating a contingency table in Microsoft Excel   [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Osborne, J. W. (2015). Best practices in logistic regression. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Warner, R. M. (2013). Applied statistics: From bivariate through multivariate techniques (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.


Neidi de Carvalho

Conditional probability described statistically as: P(B|A) = P(A and B) / P(A),  basically assesses the probability of an event occurring, given that another event has already occurred. The main aspect with conditional probability however is that one event does not directly affect the other and it therefore does not guarantee the other will occur, however it increases the chances as it established a range of likelihood. The relative risk (Osborne, 2015), presupposes that there is a higher risk something occurring when certain predisposing variables are available. An example which I live everyday is the risk of me having a car accident as at the times I have to drive are peak traffic times, thus increasing the chances of an accident as there are more vehicles on the road.

The use of conditional probability may be an easier method for the audience to understand as laypersons are able to understand the concept of the chance of something occurring or not. People deal with chances on a daily basis, thus this concept is one which relates to persons and also one which may be used more often by social researchers.


Osborne, J. W. (2015). Best practices in logistic regression. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.


Main Discussion Post: Logistic Regression Values 

There are two values that build upon one another, logit and odds in binary logistic regression. Binary logistic regression is defined as the model that takes the scores from one or more variables to estimate the odds of a specific outcome coming to fruition for a dependent variable (Warner, 2013). The outcome variable from a binary logistic regression is identified as a logit. A logit is the log of odds and the odds are obtained by dividing the number an outcome does happen by the number of times the outcome does not happen.   

An example that comes to mind to assist with the clarity; the odds that children who have parents that have master degrees will pursue and complete higher education equivalent or exceeds that of their parents or not complete or pursue higher education.


Warner, R. M. (2013). Applied statistics: From bivariate through multivariate techniques (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.  





Prior to beginning work on this assignment, be sure to have read all the required resources for the week.

Find an experimental research study on the topic chosen in Week One for your Final Research Proposal. You may choose to include an experimental study which was included in the literature review you used in the Week One assignment by searching the reference list for experimental research studies on the topic. However, it is also acceptable to find and include an experimental research study on the topic that is not included in that literature review.

Identify the specific experimental research design used in the study. Summarize the main points of the experimental research study including information on the hypothesis, sampling strategy, research design, statistical analysis, results, and conclusion(s). Evaluate the published experimental research study focusing on and identifying the specific threats to validity that apply to the chosen study. Explain whether or not these threats were adequately addressed by the researchers. Describe how the researchers applied ethical principles in the research study.

The Research and Critique an Experimental Study Must be three to four double-spaced pages in length (not including title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Must include a separate title page with the following: Title of paper Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted Must use at least one peer-reviewed source in addition to those required for this week. Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Must include a separate reference page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

  Assignment 1: Personal and Professional Ethics


Week5 discussion question 1

Some experts believe that a healthy self-esteem is crucial to success, but what impact does digital technology have on the self-esteem of today’s young people? Stories of adolescents struggling with self-esteem, loss of confidence, or poor body image dominate media that, these days, exists heavily in digital format. Young people are online more than ever before and are bombarded with marketing and other elements that challenge or weaken the development of their self-esteem. The number of followers an adolescent has on social media can define his or her level of popularity and social acceptance.

In this Discussion, you will examine the development of self-esteem in adolescents and how digital technology might impact that development.

To Prepare for this Discussion:

· Review this week’s Learning Resources and consider how digital technology might impact the self-esteem in adolescents

· Search the Internet and/or the Walden library for at least two articles related to the impact of digital technology on the development of self-esteem in adolescents

By Day 3

Post an explanation of the impact digital technology has on the development of self-esteem in adolescents. Explain the advantages and disadvantages digital technology has on that development. Include at least one scholarly source. Use proper APA format and citations.

By Day 5

Discussion question 2

Social media is highly debated these days. One criticism is that it deprives people of human interaction, but the other side of that argument posits that those who frequent social media—whether adolescents or adults—are reaching out for more interaction. What do you believe?

For this Discussion, you consider the two sides of this debate and take a stance. You then find research that focuses on the impact social media has on relationships and socialization.

To Prepare for this Discussion:

· Consider the two statements: “social media gives you a sense of community” and “social media isolates you from others”

· Take a stance and select one of these statements to support

· Search the Internet and/or the Walden library for at least two scholarly articles related to the impact of social media on relationships and socialization

Please review the readings attached to assignment only need a couple of paragraphs for each question.

Agosto, D. E., Abbas, J., & Naughton, R. (2012). Relationships and social rules: Teens’ social network and other ICT selection practices. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(6), 1108–1124. DOI: 10.1002/asi.22612

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Junko, Y., & Ananou, S. (2015). Humanity in the digital age: Cognitive, social, emotional, and ethical implications. Contemporary Educational Technology, 6(1), 1–18. 

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

O’Sullivan, L. F. (2014). Linking online sexual activities to health outcomes among teens. New Directions for Child & Adolescent Development, 2014(144), 37–51. DOI: 10.1002/cad.20059

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Owens, E. W., Behun, R. J., Manning, J. C., & Reid, R. C. (2012). The impact of internet pornography on adolescents: A review of the research. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 19(1/2), 99–122. DOI: 10.1080/10720162.2012.660431

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Underwood, M. K., Ehrenreich, S. E., More, D., Solis, J. S., & Brinkley, D. Y. (2015). The BlackBerry Project: The hidden world of adolescents’ text messaging and relations with internalizing symptoms. Journal of Research On Adolescence, 25(1), 101–117. DOI: 10.1111/jora.12101

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Knorr, C. (2015). How girls are seeking (and subverting) approval online. Common Sense Media. Retrieved from

Document: Final Project Overview (Word document)

Required Media

Turkle, S. (2012). Connected, but alone. TEDTalk. Retrieved from

Note: This media program is approximately 20 minutes.


A key element of social-emotional development during infancy and toddlerhood is the establishment of bonds of attachment. A child’s temperament can influence the nature of attachment with caregivers. For instance, an infant’s difficult temperament might make it more likely that he or she will develop an insecure attachment to the caregiver. If caregivers receive sufficient social support, thereby establishing a “goodness of fit” between temperament and environment (i.e., parenting), they can overcome some of the challenges of raising a difficult child.

The child’s temperament and the caregiver’s parenting style work in tandem to affect the child’s social-emotional and cognitive development. Caregivers who exhibit open displays of warmth and affection and who respond to their children’s needs in a timely manner (thereby acknowledging that each child has some influence on other family members) are likely to socialize their children so that they feel positively about themselves, learn to trust, and are secure with their caregivers. As you examine other parenting styles, think about how the level of caregiver responsiveness affects infant attachment.

For this Assignment, you will explore different parenting styles and forms of attachment, and you will examine how culture might impact the type of attachment.

To prepare for this Assignment: Review this week’s Learning Resources and select two child-rearing styles. Based on these child-rearing styles, consider two different types of attachment.

For this Assignment:

Write a 2- to 3-page paper and include the following: Briefly describe the two child-rearing styles you selected. Describe the two types of attachment you might expect, based on each child-rearing style you selected and explain why. Finally, explain how culture may impact the type of attachment. Be specific, provide examples, and justify your response with citations from the Learning Resources/literature.


Week5 discussion question 1

Milestones refer to important points in the development of a particular skill or ability. For example, some (but not all) of the milestones related to gross motor development include rolling over, sitting up, crawling, standing up, cruising, and walking.

The ability to communicate is an important skill. In fact, it is one of the first skills infants and children must master. Infants communicate primarily through crying. Parents and caregivers can become quite adept at interpreting a child’s cry so that they can respond to his or her needs quickly and appropriately.

While nature predisposes humans to language, it is nurture that determines language development. Language development can be facilitated in a number of ways: Adults can modify their speech (i.e., child-directed speech, simplified speech) to help young children attend to and learn the important parts of speech and appropriate syntax; play simple games with children that encourage turn-taking (a characteristic of good communication); and use of scaffolding (e.g., repetition) to help children learn the basics of language and communication (Pinker, 2004). The milestones of language development range from pre-language babbling to multi-word phrases and sentences. Individual and cultural differences can affect the rate and form of language within these milestones.

For this Discussion, you will explore one developmental milestone in infancy and/or toddlerhood as it relates to cognitive, physical, and/or social-emotional development.

To prepare for this Discussion:

· Review the Learning Resources for this week and consider the various developmental milestones in infancy and/or toddlerhood.

· Select only one developmental milestone in infancy and/or toddlerhood as it relates to cognitive, physical, and/or social-emotional development.

By Day 4

Post a brief description of the developmental milestone you selected. Then, explain the impact of missing and meeting the milestone as it relates to cognitive, physical, and social-emotional development in infancy and/or toddlerhood. Use your Learning Resources to support your post. Use proper APA format and citations.

Please view readings and write a couple of paragraphs for answer, you only 

Berk, L. E. (2014). Development through the lifespan (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Chapter 4, “Physical      Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood” (pp. 118–149) Chapter 5, “Cognitive      Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood” (pp. 150–181) Chapter 6, “Emotional and Social Development      in Infancy and Toddlerhood” (pp. 182–212)

Darling, N. (1999). Parenting style and its correlates. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED427896)

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Keller, H. (2012). Attachment and culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(2), 175–194. doi:10.1177/0022022112472253

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

Required Media

Films Media Group. (Producer). (2000). Baby’s first year [Video file]. Part of the Series: Beginning the Journey. New York, N.Y.

Note: The approximate length of this media program is 22 minutes.

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Transcript 

Optional Resources

Attachment Theory & Research @ Stony Brook. (n.d.) Retrieved August 26, 2016, from (n.d.). Communication skills. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from

Growing Child. (2013). Developmental milestones. Retrieved from

need to view what you need to answer question.


In  this assignment, you will be competing the Summary section of the your  paper, this is where you summarize, in detail, the who, what, when,  where, and how of the research paper you are reading, it should be at  least two to three pages long, and have a lot of citations in it. 

 Cite the authors by last name frequently in your text.

Attach your document, you should use the template and carefully read  the instructions on the template. Then submit your paper here, do not  write in the box, just attach your paper, also, make sure your paper is a  Microsoft Word document, .doc or .docx, other formats cannot be  graded.