Intelligence tests were designed based on the belief that there are measurable differences in ability between individuals that can help to predict future performance. There has been a long-term debate on what the word intelligence really means and a more heated debate on how much of intelligence is a product of nature (genetics) and how much is contributed by nurture (environment). In this discussion, we will explore the arguments for each of those influences.

As you create your discussion post, consider the following:

What is intelligence?

What evidence do we have that genetics play a role in intelligence?

What evidence do we have that environment is also involved?

 Over the last hundred years there has been a great deal of discussion and research that has tried to determine the relative influence of nature and of nurture on intelligence. The consensus today is that both make a strong contribution. Find one piece of evidence showing that nature (genetics) makes a contribution and one showing the influence of nurture (environment). Describe each of these pieces of evidence and explain why it supports the influence of either nature or nurture, as appropriate. What is the practical importance of understanding that intelligence is influenced by both factors? 

In order to make decisions about the value of any research study for practice, it is important to understand the general processes involved in analyzing research data. By now, you have examined enough research studies to be aware that there are some common ways that data are reported and summarized in research studies. For example, the sample is often described by numbers of participants and by certain characteristics of those participants that help us determine how representative the sample is of a population. The information about the sample is commonly reported in tables and graphs, making use of frequency distributions, measures of central tendency, and dispersion. Information about the variables (or concepts) of interest when quantified are also reported in similar manner.

Although the actual data analysis takes place after data have been collected, from the initial planning of a research study, the researcher needs to have an awareness of the types of questions that can be answered by particular data analysis techniques.

For this Discussion, review the case study entitled “Social Work Research: Measuring Group Success.” Consider the data analysis described in that case. Recall the information presented in the earlier chapters of your text about formulating research questions to inform a hypotheses or open-ended exploration of an issue.

By Day 3

Post an explanation of the types of descriptive and/or inferential statistics you might use to analyze the data gathered in the case study. Also explain how the statistics you identify can guide you in evaluating the applicability of the study’s findings for your own practice as a social worker. Please use the resources to support your answer.

Learning Resources Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus. Required Readings Yegidis, B. L., Weinbach, R. W., & Myers, L. L.  (2018). Research methods for social workers (8th ed.). New York, NY:  Pearson.

Chapter 13, “Analyzing Data” (pp. 295–297, “The Data in Perspective”) Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen S. M. (Eds.). (2014). Social work case studies: Foundation year. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing. [Vital Source e-reader].

Social Work Research: Measuring Group Success Bauer, S., Lambert, M. J., & Nielsen, S. L. (2004). Clinical significance methods: A comparison of statistical techniques. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82, 60–70.

Retrieved from Walden Library databases. Gibson, F. H. (2003). Indigent client perceptions of barriers to marriage and family therapy (Dissertation, University of Louisiana at Monroe).

Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

The Midterm Essay Examination will cover the material we have studied in Modules 1 – 4. You will need to answer four essay questions, each question requires a three to five paragraph (250 – 500 word) answer. Each answer should be clearly labeled with the question number and a copy of the question. Your answers need to be supported with information from the textbook or other appropriate sources. Do NOT use wikipedia or other encyclopedias, dictionaries or online sources such as Describe the basic functioning of a neuron beginning with receiving signals from other neurons or sense organs and ending with the transmission of a signal to another neuron. Explain how a pattern of neuron firing is related to behavior. Describe one personality trait that you believe to be highly heritable (mostly a product of genetics) and another trait that seems to be much less so. Provide reasons for your answer, and explain why you would expect genetics to exert a much greater impact on some personality traits than on others. You have been hired by a large public school system to construct a musical aptitude test. Describe what itmeans to standardize a test and the methods you would use to assess its reliability and validity. Explain why it might be more difficult to develop a valid musical aptitude test than a reliable one. Ray was assigned to barracks in a very old building with old plumbing. While showering for the first time, he heard the toilet flush and then, a few second later, was scalded when the water suddenly became much hotter. He screamed in pain. The next time he took a shower, when he heard the toilet flush, he immediately jumped out of the stream of water and screamed before the water became hotter. Name and describe the process of learning that took place. Be sure to use the correct terminology associated with all of the components involved in the process. For example, originally the sound of the toilet flushing was a (an)____________ and it later became a (an) __________ because of the process of learning. Mr. and Mrs. McDonald believe in the importance of stern discipline; they impose strict rules which they expect their children to obey without question. They penalize misbehavior harshly, frequently with a spanking. Mr. and Mrs. Mendoza instead use milder forms of punishment to enforce their rules. They also have regular family meetings in which their children help them to establish household rules and penalties for breaking them. What is the name of each of these two approaches to parenting and what do you see as the advantages and disadvantages of each. Explain the reasons for your answer. When your friend hears that you are taking a psychology course, she asserts that psychology is simply common sense. Explain why common sense is not the best way to understand human behavior. Describe the methods of science and explain why they are superior to common sense in understanding human behavior.

Assignment 1

Answer the following questions after completeing the Psych Sim titled Your Mind on Drugs:

Alcohol and Barbiturates – How does alcohol change the brain’s functioning? 

Mechanisms of Drug Addiction – What leads a person to move from the casual or recreational use of a drug to a state of addiction, in which the person experiences a powerful craving for the drug that begins to dominate his or her life?

Addiction Experiment – What type of injection would you predict to be more pleasurable for the rat? Would the location of the injection make a difference?

Results of Addiction Experiment – What conclusions did you draw from the rat’s behavior? 

Understanding and Treating Addiction – Why can some people use a drug in moderation for years, while others move quickly from casual use to a full-blown addiction?

Assignment 2

1. What did Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment show?

2. How do shaping, generalization, and discriminative stimuli influence operant conditioning?

3. What has research shown regarding learning from media?

4. Compare and contrast operant and classical conditioning theories.

5. Be sure to include in paragraph citations and references.

Using the African American culture in Georgia, address the communication needs of this group, in terms of medical information. What are you suggestions for health care providers working with this group to improve treatment adherence?

Requirements: Each 2-3 page (plus cover page and references) paper must be concise and readable by the general public. Use citations and references in APA format to back up your arguments. 

Personal Lifeline: Part 1

Presentation SubmissionIn this assignment, you will explore your lifeline of personal experiences, including developmental milestones, unique personal events, as well as involvement in sport and/or physical activity, and what may have influenced your decision to become a sport psychologist or counselor. The purpose of this assignment is to give you an opportunity to review and apply the theories and concepts of life span development, to understand how each stage of your development affected you. Through your analysis and application of the theories, you will identify how your life events enhanced your growth and development or challenged you.This assignment is divided into three parts and will be explained in detail in each module.

Part I: Using Microsoft PowerPoint, create a slide show of your life span thus far. This visual lifeline should include developmental milestones, unique personal events, involvement in sport and/or physical activity, and what may have influenced your decision to become a sport psychologist or counselor.

Part II: You will post reactions to the presentation of one of your peers.

Part III: You will write a reaction paper on insights and knowledge you have gained by creating your own presentation, as well as viewing the presentation of one of your peers.You will complete the first, second, and the third part of this assignment in Modules 4, 5, and 6, respectively.In this first part of the assignment, create a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation on your lifeline of personal events. Your presentation should not exceed 20 slides. Use the speaker’s notes to add content detail to your slides.Describe how the biosocial, cognitive, or psychosocial events either enhanced your growth and development or challenged you. Apply the knowledge you have gained so far in all the chapters leading up to your age group. Do not disclose unresolved traumas that you do not wish to share or breach the confidentiality of family members. Only include personal pictures that you have permission from family members to use. Focus more on the theories than anecdotes.Apply your knowledge of life span development to the examples in your own life. Your life events have ranged from average to unique even if they do not seem that dramatic to you. You can talk with your parents or siblings or others who know you, if you have difficulty being objective or have problems gaining an appropriate perspective.Share aspects of your own life story as it relates to the life span material. In your presentation, focus on the following:What are the important milestone in your life, such as walking, talking, reading, and writing?What are the important milestones related to sport and/or physical activities?How and when (late or early) did you meet your milestones?Do you have any unique abilities?What influence did your family and/or sibling had on you?What were the unique aspects of your life that influenced you, such as unique cultural, regional, and/or religious influences? How did they influence you?How did you complete the Erikson’s stages?What learning did you accomplish because of a good mentor to guide you using Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development?Provide examples from your sport activities and personal life events.How have your sport activities and personal life events influenced each other? What is the influence of your sport activities and personal life events in your growth and development as a human being? Do a comparative analysis, applying the knowledge you have gained so far.Since creativity will affect your grade, use multimedia in an innovative way and complete your presentation with speaker notes, citations, and visual aids such as tables, charts, data, Web links, and images. Feel free to use such things as photos and illustrations. Make sure you have permission to show or discuss information about family members.Note: Make sure you have permission to show or discuss information about family members.Name your file M4_A2_LastName_PersonalLifeline.ppt. Submit it to the

Submissions Area by the due date assigned.All written assignments and responses should follow APA rules for attributing sources.Assignment 2 Grading Criteria Maximum PointsIdentified and described the personal life events activities that have either enhanced your growth and development or challenged you.8Identified and described sport activities that have either enhanced your growth and development or challenged you.8Identified and explained how and when you met milestones.8Described your unique abilities.8Described the influences your family and/or sibling(s) have had on you.8Described the influences of the unique aspects of your life.8Explained how you completed the Erikson’s stages.8Described any learning you accomplished because you had a good mentor to guide you using Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development.8Provided examples from your personal life events and sport activities.8Provided a presentation that made a high impact using a mix of text, visual aids, and speaker notes.8Provided a comparative analysis of your personal life events and sport activities in influencing your growth and development as a human being.8Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources, displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.4Total:92

Each student will be required to present their final Social Impact – Global Advocacy proposal and where they volunteered at a local community for there 15 service hours. This is an activity that you currently not active doing so it must be something new. It also cannot be something that you have already have done. Finally, it must be related to psychology. Please get permission from your professor before you begin.

Your presentation should include the following:

*PLEASE ADD PRESENTER NOTES* Title page slide Summary of your organization including why it is needed slide What the mission and the goals of your organization are slide What you could do to SPECIFICALLY advocate for your organization (increase awareness, founding, outreach, etc.) slide Call for action slide – Why should be care? Reference page slide What you did for your volunteer hours slide.



Respond to at least two of your classmates’ initial posts throughout the week by noting how their perspective is the same or different than yours. Each of your responses should be at least 100 words long. Both your initial post and your responses should refer both to your own experience and to content from readings, media, or websites.

Responses Checklist: Did you respond to two or more classmates throughout the week? Did you use scholarly resources to support your work? Did you discuss each area in the instruction and Grading Rubric? Did you use APA? First Post to reply to I’m very grateful for the privileges I’ve had throughout my life. I grew up in a white middle-class family. I was able to attend public schools while my mother didn’t have the privilege to go to high school. I knew some of my friends had more and some less but didn’t realize how hard other children had it.

I went on to obtain my associate and master’s degree that’s when I realized just how important privileges are all over the world. Some groups are favored and enjoy higher social class status, while others are disadvantaged and often disparaged. (Kahn, 2015). I see now and feel for the groups that are disparaged.

I couldn’t fairly take the test at the end of chapter 4 because I’m disabled and cannot work right now. But I still see how privileged I truly am. I’m alive and attending this University with hopes of working in the future. 

I do think equity and equality are both required. To make things better we need equity being fair and impartial.


Kahn, A. (2015). The ecology of diversity: Examining individuals, societies, and cultures.

Second Post to Reply Throughout my life I have experienced all types of discrimination. There is not one person that has not been effected or benefited by privilege in some shape or form. I am African American and a woman so I have had many closed in my face and many stereotypes placed upon me. Seeing others with privilege has effect me in various ways. In one regard it has caused me to work and strive harder. It has also caused me to sometimes feel non-productive.

            Although I did not grow up with a silver spoon in my mouth, I grew up with the privilege of growing up in a 2 parent home. Musick and Meier (2010) writes, “Growing up without both parents is associated with a host of poor child outcomes. Children from single-parent and stepparent families have higher poverty rates and lower levels of educational and occupational attainment than children who grow up with both their biological or adoptive parents”. Some people may not see this as a privilege. Honestly, I did not view this as one as well. It is only as I look back on my life and people around me that I realized that living in a house with 2 parents gave me certain privileges. One thing was the stability that was always personified. We were always revered as a strong black family in our comy tomunity.

            As we examine privilege, in respect to my upbringing, It has shaped my life by giving me  the confidence to grow.


Musick, K., & Meier, A. (2010). Are Both Parents Always Better Than One? Parental Conflict and Young Adult Well-being. Social Science Research, 39(5), 814–830.

  Week 6 – Interactive Assignment

11 unread reply.11 reply.

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

Topic and Research Design Presentation and Rationale

Prior to beginning work on this interactive assignment, it is recommended that you review the recommended resources for this week as they will assist you in the creation of an effective presentation of your Research Design.

This interactive assignment will provide you with an opportunity to create a dynamic presentation of some of the materials you are creating for your Research Proposal. This type of presentation would be used in the professional world to request Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, and potentially elicit funding, for your research.

In your presentation, summarize the main points and ideas for your Research Design. Over the course of the week, you will have the opportunity to share feedback and suggestions with your classmates and instructor, which may assist you in improving your research proposal before submitting the Research Proposal.

For this interactive assignment, create a presentation file using PowerPoint and then create a three- to five-minute screencast video of your presentation with pertinent audio that includes important points about the content of each slide. In order to make sure your video remains within the 3-5 minute time requirement, create a script for your screencast video. You must attach your script to your initial post. It is recommended you rehearse your presentation using your script to ensure that you are within the time limit and that all pertinent information is presented in a manner that is easy to understand. You may use any screencasting software of your choice (e.g., Screencast-O-Matic, Jing, etc.). A quick-start guide is available for Screencast-O-Matic (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. for your convenience.

The content of the presentation must include the following: A brief introduction Devise a specific research question related to the topic you chose in Week One. Explain the importance of the topic and research question. A brief literature review Evaluate published research studies on your topic found during your work on the Weeks One, Two, and Four assignments and identify two relevant published studies. A description of potential methods Based on what you have learned about research design options and requirements in this course, create an appropriate research approach and design to investigate your research question. Provide a rationale for your design choices. A discussion on ethical issues Apply ethical standards to the proposed research and identify potential ethical issues that would apply. Explain how you plan to address these issues. A conclusion Summarize the main points of the presentation and reiterate why the proposed research is important and why it should be carried out.

In your initial discussion post, introduce your presentation and provide a link to the screencast URL.

Be sure to attach your PowerPoint presentation and script documents to your initial post.

Note to Students: This assignment requires that you produce a visual presentation, supply a spoken audio narrative, and to listen the audio narrative of others.  Note you are also asked to provide a transcript of your presentation.  If you have a documented disability accommodation that might interfere with your ability to complete this assignment you may contact your instructor to develop a comparable alternative assignment.  If you have other issues that you feel may be a barrier to your ability to complete this course or this assignment please contact the Office of Access and Wellness at: [email protected] .

Guided Response: Review several of your colleagues’ posts and respond to at least two of your peers by 11:59 p.m. on Day 7 of the week. You are encouraged to post your required replies earlier in the week to promote more meaningful interactive discourse in this discussion. 

Apply the scientific method to the research problem(s) presented and comment on the appropriateness of the research question devised. If the question devised does not seem appropriate and researchable, suggest another research question that would apply to this topic. Compare the characteristics of various appropriate research paradigms related to your colleague’s chosen topic and suggest another research method that could be applied to this research question. Provide a rationale that explains how this method may be equally or more appropriate for the research question. Evaluate the ethical implications of the proposed research and suggest other issues your colleague has not mentioned. Provide any other comments to your colleague that may assist him or her in creating a more effective research proposal.

Continue to monitor the discussion forum until 5:00 p.m. Mountain Standard Time (MST) on Day 7 of the week and respond to anyone who replies to your initial post. In your replies to these comments to your initial post either respectfully defend your choices providing supporting information from your research, or explain how you might incorporate the suggested changes into your research proposal.


Unit 4AA Discussion 1 & 2? $30.00 Due (Friday) 7/29/2018.   

Unit 4 Discussion 1

Theoretical Approaches and Counseling Techniques

Compare the counseling techniques you observed in the person-centered counseling videos (with the child, Wood), to the counseling techniques you observed in the video that corresponded to the additional chapter you selected in Counseling Children.

Identify the key similarities and differences between the two theoretical approaches in the following areas, using course readings to support your conclusions:

· Typical therapeutic goals for helping children and adolescents.

· Counseling methods and process used by the counselors used in the video sessions.

· Specific techniques used by the counselors, and the client’s response.

· Adaptability of the theory for use with children from diverse cultures and backgrounds.

o APA Style and Format.

[u04d2] Unit 4 Discussion 2

Unit 4 Discussion 2

How Theories Determine Interventions 

Discussion Scenario

For this discussion, first imagine the following scenario.

A father of a 4-year-old boy brings his son to counseling. His son has recently begun biting other children at preschool. As would be expected, this behavior is extremely upsetting to the teachers, the children who have been bitten, and their parents. The director of the preschool has told the father that the problem must be addressed by a professional if the child is to remain in preschool.

The father of the boy wants to get the best help he can, so he arranges an initial session with five counselors who advertise themselves as working from five different theoretical perspectives. He asks them all the same two questions: “Why is my child biting? And how will you make him stop?” He receives the following answers:

Psychodynamic Counselor

· Why: “Your child may have an oral fixation that he has tied to his aggressive impulses.”

· What to do: “When your child’s unconscious motives have been freely expressed and resolved, his behavior and peer interactions will become more age-appropriate.”

Behavioral Counselor

· Why: “It doesn’t matter why; what matters is precisely selecting the behavior you want to change.”

· What to do: “Through observation, we will determine the contingencies that are reinforcing this biting behavior and eliminate them, while simultaneously establishing rewards for desired behaviors.”

Adlerian Counselor

· Why: “It will be important to know what need your son is seeking to satisfy with this behavior—power? Attention? Self-Protection?”

· What to do: “When we find more constructive ways for your son to satisfy his need and encourage his use of these alternate ways, the biting behavior will discontinue.”

Person-Centered Counselor

· Why: “I wonder if your child feels truly seen and understood, and feels prized for who he is.”

· What to do: “When we create a space where your son feels unconditionally accepted, he will work through this on his own and I expect the biting will stop.”

Solution Focused Counselor

· Why: “I don’t know why, but answer this: Are there days when he doesn’t bite?”

· What to do: “Let’s figure out what’s happening on the days he doesn’t bite, and do more of that.”

This whimsical scenario is overly simplified to the point of being humorous. Nevertheless, it underlines the point that the same problem would be understood and addressed differently by counselors working from different orientations. It also makes the point that the answer to what to do is based on the counselor’s answer to why the problem is occurring.

Discussion Instructions

Now it is your turn. Select a common problem behavior that a child or teen might display (such as school refusal, bed-wetting, lying to teachers, sneaking out at night, obsessive fingernail biting, or always losing homework).

· Briefly describe the problem.

· Then, offer responses, from three different counselors who represent three different theoretical perspectives, to the why and the what to do questions.

· Use your textbook to ensure that you design responses that are consistent with the theories on which they are based.

· Offer a rationale, citing your support, for how you see each of your responses as exemplifying each of your chosen theories.

Audiovisual Media

Watch these videos to observe person-centered counseling in action:

· Person-Centered Counseling: Wood Interview, Clip 1: Access this video from the textbook’s companion Web site. In the drop-down menu, select Chapter 6, “Person-Centered Counseling,” and choose Video Activity 1 to get started. Transcript.

· Person-Centered Counseling: Wood Interview, Clip 2: Access this video from the textbook’s companion Web site. In the drop-down menu, select Chapter 6, “Person-Centered Counseling,” and choose Video Activity 2 to get started. Transcript.

In addition, watch the video that corresponds to the additional chapter you chose to read:

· Gestalt Therapy: Jennifer Interview, Clip 1: Access this video from the textbook’s companion Web site. In the drop-down menu, select Chapter 7, “Gestalt Therapy,” and choose Video Activity 1 to get started. Transcript.

· Behavioral Counseling: Laney Interview, Clip 1: Access this video from the textbook’s companion Web site. In the drop-down menu, select Chapter 8, “Behavioral Counseling,” and choose Video Activity 1 to get started. Transcript.

· Reality Therapy: Tim Interview, Clip 1: Access this video from the textbook’s companion Web site. In the drop-down menu, select Chapter 9, “Reality Therapy,” and choose Video Activity 1 to get started. Transcript.

· Reality Therapy: Tim Interview, Clip 2: Access this video from the textbook’s companion Web site. In the drop-down menu, select Chapter 9, “Reality Therapy,” and choose Video Activity 2 to get started. Transcript.

· Brief Counseling: Sarah Interview, Clip 1: Access this video from the textbook’s companion Web site. In the drop-down menu, select Chapter 10, “Brief Counseling,” and choose Video Activity 1 to get started. Transcript.

· Brief Counseling: Sarah Interview, Clip 2: Access this video from the textbook’s companion Web site. In the drop-down menu, select Chapter 10, “Brief Counseling,” and choose Video Activity 2 to get started. Transcript.

· Individual Psychology: Sarah Interview, Clip 1: Access this video from the textbook’s companion Web site. In the drop-down menu, select Chapter 11, “Individual Psychology,” and choose Video Activity 2 to get started. Transcript.

· Individual Psychology: Sarah Interview, Clip 2: Access this video from the textbook’s companion Web site. In the drop-down menu, select Chapter 11, “Individual Psychology,” and choose Video Activity 2 to get started. Transcript.