In studying the various DSM diagnoses now, much research comes from the idea that we may inherit genetic predispositions toward something, and then different things in the environment can possibly trigger our vulnerability to them. But, it does not necessarily mean that those genetic predispositions will be realized. What do you think about this, using the ideas of nature/nurture?

Prepare a written response to the following questions.

 

Chapters 9 &11

 

1.       Two boats, the Prada (Italy) and the Oracle (USA), are competing for a spot in the upcoming America’s Cup race. They race over a part of the course several times. The sample times in minutes for the Prada were: 12.9, 12.5, 11.0, 13.3, 11.2, 11.4, 11.6, 12.3, 14.2, and 11.3.  The sample times in minutes for the Oracle were: 14.1, 14.1, 14.2, 17.4, 15.8, 16.7, 16.1, 13.3, 13.4, 13.6, 10.8, and 19.0. For data analysis, the appropriate test is the t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances.

The next table shows the results of this independent t-test. At the .05 significance level, can we conclude that there is a difference in their mean times? Explain these results to a person who knows about the t test for a single sample but is unfamiliar with the t test for independent means.

 

Hypothesis Test: Independent Groups (t-test, unequal variance)         

Prada

Oracle      

12.170

14.875

mean     

1.056

2.208

std. dev.     

10

12

n              

16

df      

-2.7050

difference (Prada – Oracle)    

0.7196

standard error of difference    

0

hypothesized difference            

-3.76

 t      

.0017

 p-value (two-tailed)             

-4.2304

confidence interval 95.% lower    

-1.1796

confidence interval 95.% upper    

1.5254

margin of error           

 

 

2.       The Willow Run Outlet Mall has two Haggar Outlet Stores, one located on Peach Street and the other on Plum Street. The two stores are laid out differently, but both store managers claim their layout maximizes the amounts customers will purchase on impulse. A sample of ten customers at the Peach Street store revealed they spent the following amounts more than planned: $17.58, $19.73, $12.61, $17.79, $16.22, $15.82, $15.40, $15.86, $11.82, $15.85. A sample of fourteen customers at the Plum Street store revealed they spent the following amounts more than they planned when they entered the store: $18.19, $20.22, $17.38, $17.96, $23.92, $15.87, $16.47, $15.96, $16.79, $16.74, $21.40, $20.57, $19.79, $14.83. For Data Analysis, a t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances was used.

At the .01 significance level is there a difference in the mean amount purchased on an impulse at the two stores?Explain these results to a person who knows about the t test for a single sample but is unfamiliar with the t test for independent means.

 

Hypothesis Test: Independent Groups (t-test, unequal variance)        

Peach Street

Plum Street     

15.8680

18.2921

mean    

2.3306

2.5527

std. dev.    

10

14

n            

20

df     

-2.42414

difference (Peach Street – Plum Street)  

1.00431

standard error of difference   

0

hypothesized difference          

-2.41

 t     

.0255

 p-value (two-tailed)           

-5.28173

confidence interval 99.% lower   

0.43345

confidence interval 99.% upper   

2.85759

  margin of error         

 

3.       Fry Brothers heating and Air Conditioning, Inc. employs Larry Clark and George Murnen to make service calls to repair furnaces and air conditioning units in homes. Tom Fry, the owner, would like to know whether there is a difference in the mean number of service calls they make per day. Assume the population standard deviation for Larry Clark is 1.05 calls per day and 1.23 calls per day for George Murnen. A random sample of 40 days last year showed that Larry Clark made an average of 4.77 calls per day. For a sample of 50 days George Murnen made an average of 5.02 calls per day. At the .05 significance level, is there a difference in the mean number of calls per day between the two employees? What is the p-value?

 

Hypothesis Test: Independent Groups (t-test, pooled variance)         

Larry

George      

4.77

5.02

mean     

1.05

1.23

std. dev.     

40

50

n              

88 

df      

-0.25000

difference (Larry – George)    

1.33102

pooled variance     

1.15370

pooled std. dev.     

0.24474

standard error of difference    

0

hypothesized difference            

-1.02

 t      

.3098

 p-value (two-tailed)             

-0.73636

confidence interval 95.% lower    

0.23636

confidence interval 95.% upper    

0.48636

  margin of error   

 

Chapters 11 & 12

 

4.       A consumer organization wants to know if there is a difference in the price of a particular toy at three different types of stores. The price of the toy was checked in a sample of five discount toy stores, five variety stores, and five department stores. The results are shown below.

Discount toy

Variety

Department

$12

15

19

13

17

17

14

14

16

12

18

20

15

17

19

An ANOVA was run and the results are shown below.  At the .05 significance level, is there a difference in the mean prices between the three stores? What is the p-value?  Explain why an ANOVA was used to analyze this problem.

 

One factor ANOVA           

 

Mean

n

Std. Dev

    

13.2

5

1.30

Discount Toys   

16.2

5

1.64

Variety   

18.2

5

1.64

Department  

 

15.9

15

2.56

Total   

      

ANOVA table

      

Source

SS

   df

MS

F

   p-value 

Treatment

63.33

2

31.667

13.38

.0009 

Error

28.40

12

2.367   

Total

91.73

14

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.       A physician who specializes in weight control has three different diets she recommends. As an experiment, she randomly selected 15 patients and then assigned 5 to each diet. After three weeks the following weight losses, in pounds, were noted. At the .05 significance level, can she conclude that there is a difference in the mean amount of weight loss among the three diets?

Plan A

Plan B

Plan C

5

6

7

7

7

8

4

7

9

5

5

8

4

6

9

 

An ANOVA was run and the results are shown below.  At the .01 significance level, is there a difference in the weight loss between the three plans? What is the p-value?  What can you do to determine exactly where the difference is?

 

One factor ANOVA           

 

Mean

n

Std. Dev

    

5.0

5

1.22

Plan A   

6.2

5

0.84

Plan B   

8.2

5

0.84

Plan C  

 

6.5

15

1.64

Total   

      

ANOVA table

      

Source

SS

  df

MS

F

   p-value 

Treatment

26.13

2

13.067

13.52

.0008 

Error

11.60

12

0.967   

Total

37.73

14

 

 

  

Application Assignment: Research Simulation

Note: Your Application Assignment this week has two parts.

Part 2: Ethical Considerations for Your Selected Subtopic

Last week, you took two steps forward in your research simulation. First, you decided on which topic to focus for the remainder of this assignment. Second, as you conducted your abbreviated literature review, you gained insight into the thinking of researchers who are also interested in your chosen topic. The focus of your studies this week has been on research ethics. Applying these principles to your research simulation is your task for this assignment.

Below is a list of common ethics concerns with regard to research studies. Take time to review this list and reflect on ways each might apply to your selected research topic. Informed consent with adults Informed consent with children Deception of participants Confidentiality concerns Risk/benefit considerations Cultural concerns Research with indigenous participants

For this assignment, summarize: The ways in which any or all of the ethics concerns might influence or need to be taken into consideration with regard to your specific research simulation? How you might address the ethics concern(s) you identified, i.e., modify or add to your research simulation

Assignment length: Approximately 2 pages

Submit this assignment by Sunday of this week.

My hypothesis is that women look in the mirror more than men do while passing by a mirror or a reflective surface. 

 

  Papers/Projects    Objective

The Human Observation Project is designed:To provide students with an opportunity to apply scientific methods to a study of human behavior.To provide working models for key terms.To provide experience in the application of behavior change theories.Format The Human Observation Project should consist of a minimum of five typed pages. Information should be provided for each section of the Observation Project Form. The project is divided into two section:the gathering of baseline informationbehavior change

Be sure that the project submission adheres to the following formatting requirements:Use double-spacing.Use size 12 font.Set margins to one-inch on all sides.Be sure to include your name/course title on the first page.Write in complete sentences, use good English grammar, and correct spelling.Avoid personal pronouns and statements such as “I believe, I placed the coin on the floor…”, “My research proved that….” – in objective, naturalistic research your opinion is not very important, but your findings are. Your research may suggest that…, support the hypothesis…, or indicate….; but it does not necessarily proveanything.Charts and graphs are part of an “A” paper, but are not part of the basic page count of the project. References to outside sources may also part of an A or B level paper. Information should be provided for each section as outlined below.APA documentation style must be used when citing references in context and bibliography (if any).Project Outline Outline for the Project:

I.  Initial Problem

           Statement of the Problem: Explain the problem behavior. Convince the reader this behavior needs to be studied.  Give examples from life.  Remember, do not use personal pronouns (I, me, my).   If you would like an A or B on your project add information from professional, scholarly research and site your reference using APA style documentation.  In order to locate professional, scholarly research go to the CTC library online  database, type in your topic, and click peer reviewed.

           Theory: This is a prediction. What do you expect to observe. The theory is a general statement. For example, most males or females do not wash their hands after using the restroom. Most people will not pick up after themselves after eating in a public place.

            Hypothesis: The hypothesis must be written in such a way as to test the theory. A theory is like an umbrella covering behaviors with the presumption that they are related. A good hypothesis rains on the umbrella to see if there are any holes. For example, between the hours of 11:00 and 1:00 on Monday and Wednesday at McDonald’s most patrons (or males, females, adolescents) will not place their napkins, cups, plates, and eating utensils in the trash and return their tray to the rack.

           Procedure: This is a description of the step-by-step process used during the observation. Where did the observer sit? Was the observer visible to the subject being observed? How was data collected? The description needs to be written in sufficient detail that someone else could attempt to replicate (repeat) the procedure to determine if the same results could be obtained.

           Results: The results are given in the form of numbers. This is the count. It is often presented in complex statistical terms. A numerical count and percentages will be sufficient for our purposes. An A or B level paper will add a graph or chart with well defined axses .

          Discussion: This is a summary of the results in simpler, more practice language. The numbers are converted to statements of meaning and application. Include discussion of strengths and weaknesses of the research.  Example:  During the observation of eye contact while walking across campus a hail storm suddenly interrupted the study.

II. Change of Behavior

            Statement of the Problem: In this section refer back to your own research.  Example:  Previous research has demonstrated that over 50% of males and 40% of females do not wash their hands after using the restroom.  The possibility for spreading bacteria is significant.

            Theory:  This is the new prediction.  Example:  People you believe they are being observed will be more likely to wash their hands after using the restroom.

            Hypothesis:  Write a statement which predicts and tests the theory.  This takes operational definitions. Example:  If an observer holding a clip board and recording behaviors is standing next to the sink in the restroom subjects will tend to wash their hands.  

             Procedure:  This is a detailed description of how the observation was carried out.  Example:  The observer stood by the sink in the female restroom on Monday and Wednesday between the hours of 12:00 and 1:00 holding a clip board, pencil, and a stop watch.  As subjects left the stalls she looked intently at each subject, began to write on the clip board, and turned on the stop watch when hand washing was initiated.

             Results:  Once again these are the numbers, the count, in paragraph form.  Better papers include percentages.  A and B project add graphs or charts, but do not omit the paragraph information.

              Discussion: The section explains the entire research project.   Cite your numbers and explain them.  Add strengths and weaknesses of the study.  At this point all good research should produce questions in the mind of the researcher which have never been considered before.  Discuss possible new lines of research to answer these questions.

               References:  The last page must contain the references cited in the first Statement of the Problem.  Uses APA style documentation.  Dr. Kalat  uses APA in your textbook.  Notice how he refers to a source within the context of the chapter by using (last name, year of publication).  At the end of your text book he cites the complete reference.  Look at the pattern he uses for a guide.

Go to the link containing the scoring rubric and check to be certain that you have included all the points upon which your project will be scored.

Section 1: Naturalistic Observation  Write a theory and hypothesis, explain the procedure you will use to determine if the theory and hypothesis are supported, give the result or the count, and finally, discuss your results or findings.

The first half of your research will be a naturalistic observation. You will be determining the baseline of behavior, or what the behavior looks like, or the amount of the behavior present under normal circumstances. The observer is unobtrusive, rather like the wallpaper. There is no interference with the behavior.

You are to select a human behavior. Discuss the problem surrounding this behavior. The following is a list of topics which have been used in the past. You may select from the list or develop one of your own. Select a behavior which you encounter each day. The greatest challenge is isolating or narrowing the behavior to a single event which you can define, count, and attempt to change or observe as changed in a different environment.Eye contactHand washingDoor opening for othersMoney on the groundCleaning off the table after you eat in a fast food restaurantResponse time of clerks when the researcher dresses poorly or nicelyTips – restaurant, beauty salon, etc.Helpful behavior when toilet paper is attached to the researchers shoe in a public placeHand waving when driving down a country roadChanging television stations in a public waiting roomProducts purchased from shelves of different heightColor of products purchasedSeating behaviors in school cafeteria or restaurantStop light runningUse of cell phones in school areasUse of cell phones while drivingPurchasing one item or the “full meal deal” at a fast food restaurantHuman responses to walking dogs of different sizes or breedsHuman response to “Don’t walk on the grass!” signsDriver behavior while waiting on a stop light (make-up, hair combing using rear view mirror)Assistance reaching items from the top shelfDropping a dollar while walking through Walmart …will someone return the dollar? (Can be an expensive project.)Returning shopping carts to the proper areasSmiling or waving “thank you” when a car stops to allow shoppers to cross in the parking lotBehavior in the check-out line: smiling, conversation…The behavior of children in the check-out line (pulling things from shelves, yelling, smiling, climbing out of cart….)Behavior of children in a classroom (talking, out of seat, interrupting, turning in homework….)

DO NOT :Place a baby carrier on top of a car and drive around the mall parking lot to see if someone will attempt to stop youStop your car by the side of the road to see if someone might stop and assistAttempt a tail gating experiment of any kindSelect any behavior which might be harmful, socially offensive, or immoralSection 2: Experiment

The second half of the project will be a type of experiment. By introducing a variable, you will attempt to increase or decrease a behavior. For example, one student in Iraq counted the number of men who failed to wash their hands after using the latrine next to the dining facility. This student’s count suggested a problem. During the behavior change section of the project, the student placed honey (the independent variable) on the handles of the doors. As a result, hand washing (the dependent variable) increased.

Your project will require you to walk through the same steps again, but from the point of view of changing or improving the behavior. Begin with your own results. That is the statement of the problem. You have counted and found that, yes, this is an area of human behavior which should be improved.  APA documentation style must be used when citing references in context and references at the end of your project. Your textbook may be your only reference.

can i get some help

 

 

Sociologists research and write about current topics that are culturally, politically, socially, and economically important. One such subject is same-sex marriage. For this assignment, you will research a few court cases. Your goal here is to study this subject as a scientist would. Therefore, it does not matter whether you agree with the ruling or not, you can still write objectively about it. 

Use the Internet to find court cases and news articles from mainstream news outlets to use for your references, along with the textbook. Begin by looking up the Loving v. Virginia case. Next, list the states that allow same-sex marriage. 

 

What were some of the arguments the states used in their legalization? 

What were some of the legal arguments against same-sex marriage? (Note: When looking for information, please refrain from religious reasoning or personal opinions; remember, you are looking at this as a scientist.)

Do you think that the Supreme Court’s ruling on Loving v. Virginia changed much about American attitudes and practices? 

Does this case set precedent for same-sex marriage? How has this view changed over time? 

Do you see a shift in America’s view towards same-sex marriage? 

In what way is it changing? 

Finally, briefly discuss how you feel about the subject. 

To what groups do you belong that help to shape your feelings about this issue? 

How do they help shape them? 

Your assignment must be a minimum of two pages in length. As always, use APA formatting. Pay special attention to the proper citation of Internet resources.

1-2 Paragraphs at leat 1 citation.  Due in 3 hours.

 

Does physical attractiveness have an impact on social attraction to others? Explain using specific examples to support your thinking. 

Hi the assignment is due on Saturday. Thanks

 

Need by 20 March 2016 by 2300hrs EST

 

 

 

Answer the following questions in  complete sentences and paragraphs and 250–300 words in length, making sure to follow APA format and cite all references used.

 

How do ethnocentricity and cultural relativism help us understand the differences between levels of development in societies?

What are the positive and negative outcomes on individual culture when post-industrial societies interact with hunting and gathering, pastoral, agrarian, or industrial societies?

How does social structure determine the patterns of interaction between members of a society?

 

You may use the following e-book for reference: Macionis, John J. (2013).  Sociology, 15th Edition. Pearson Learning Solutions. VitalSource Bookshelf Online.

 

i need a un plagarized paper on the following…