Conceptualizing a Case

Developmental, Sociocultural, Ethical, and Diagnostic Considerations in Counseling Children and Adolescents

Due: End of Unit 3.

Mental Health Counselors of children and adolescents often need to communicate with appropriate individuals, such as supervisors, parents, or other counselors, about the basic facts and issues surrounding their clients. Creating a factual summary is the first step in the building a case conceptualization, diagnosis, and treatment plan.

Your assignment is to develop a case description, analysis, and treatment plan for a hypothetical case. You will first create a background sketch for your hypothetical case, following the example below. Next, you will present your analysis of the developmental, cultural, and legal aspects of the case. Then you will present your diagnosis and treatment plan for the case. Your case description and treatment plan should be succinct in addressing each area. Counselors must prepare reports that summarize many details accurately but briefly. Use the Conceptualizing a Case Template, linked in Resources, to develop your treatment plan. This template will provide the correct format and structure of a brief background sketch, case analysis, and initial treatment plan. The headings for this assignment are listed below and in the template that you will use to prepare this assignment. Use a minimum of 5 references, including your textbook. Your paper should be 5–6 pages in length, not including the title page or reference page. No abstract is necessary.

Background Sketch Components

You will first complete a background sketch for a child or adolescent client whom you might serve. (Use the background sketch you developed in Unit 1, with any revisions you made after peer and instructor feedback.) The background sketch will be brief. There are many examples of background sketches in the Counseling Children textbook, in the introductions to the case studies offered throughout (for example, see page 195). Here is another example:

Identification of the Problem

Sari [hypothetical name] is a 10-year-old girl in the fifth grade at Middle Valley Elementary. She is referred to counseling because the after-school staff report that she has become withdrawn recently, refusing offers for homework help or invitations from friends to join in activities.

Individual and Background Information

Academic: Staff report that Sari was previously proud of her report cards and showed them to the after school tutors. However, she would not talk about her most recent report card and was seen tearfully tearing it into pieces.

Family and Culture: Sari’s family immigrated from Turkey when she was a toddler. She is the oldest of three children, who are also in the after school program. Her mother works in the kitchen of Middle Valley Hospital. Her father drives a cab. Her parents alternate picking up the children. Sari expresses pride for her Turkish heritage, and mentions her family’s involvement with a local Turkish cultural group.

Physical: Sari is of average height for her age. She has a lean body mass and shows no signs of puberty. She rarely misses school due to illness. She has an untreated port-wine stain birthmark on one cheek and ear; she attempts to cover it with her hair style.

Social: Sari is athletic and loved playing outdoor games until her recent withdrawal from activities she previously enjoyed. She was frequently chosen by her peers to be a team member, and has several causal friendships, though she spends much of her time checking on her younger siblings in the program.

***Case Conceptualization Components

Next, you will analyze aspects of this case for features that will need to be considered in deciding how to best assist your client.

***Developmental Analysis

Briefly apply concepts—from Piaget’s theory, Selman, Erikson, and what is known about development of the brain and physical maturation—to your case (refer to Chapter 2 of Counseling Children for a review of developmental theories). Is your child or adolescent on track developmentally, or off track in some domains?

***Cultural Analysis

Briefly highlight the cultural considerations that might be important for understanding and counseling your case (refer to Chapter 2 of Counseling Children for counseling considerations for children from diverse cultures).

***Ecomap Assessment of Stressors and Supports

Summarize your Ecomap assessment to analyze how family, community, cultural, and societal factors contribute to the stressors and supports in your client’s life. Present your evaluation of how your child or adolescent client is supported by prevention, intervention, and education efforts or programs and networks that promote mental health, or how he or she experiences stress from the absence of support.

***Legal and Ethical Issues Plan

Briefly articulate a legal and ethical issues plan, presenting the steps you will take to establish an ethical counseling relationship with your child or adolescent client. Identify potential ethical or legal issues that could arise with this client, and briefly describe how you will handle each of these, referencing specific laws and ethical codes (you may use the issues you have identified for the second discussion of this unit, after considering peer and instructor feedback).

***Treatment Plan Components

Create a treatment plan for your case, including a preliminary diagnosis (use the diagnostic process you practiced in the first Unit 2 discussion). Your treatment plan should succinctly address these sections, also outlined in the Counseling Children text (pages 103–104): Problem Identification. Problem Definition. Goal Development. Measurable Outcomes. Creating Interventions. Diagnosing.


Henderson, D. A., & Thompson, C. L. (2016). Counseling children (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.

Resources Conceptualizing a Case Scoring Guide. Conceptualizing a Case Template. APA Style and Format. Jongsma, Peterson, McInnis, and Bruce’s e-book, The Adolescent Psychotherapy Treatment Planner. Jongsma, Peterson, McInnis, and Bruce’s e-book, The Child Psychotherapy Treatment Planner.

Legal Issues in Counseling Children and Teens

Based on your experience in a counseling-related field or another professional arena, identify an incident with specific legal issues associated with the provision of counseling services to children and adolescents and describe how they were handled. Briefly describe what happened, changing specifics as needed to protect confidentiality. Based on what you have learned in Counseling Children, Morelen and Schaffer’s 2012 article, linked in Resources, and your review of the laws in your state, how well were the issues handled? What are the best practices for handling these issues?

Need 375 words or more 

Should health care in the U.S. be a right or a privilege? Give us your opinion and explain the reasons why.

3-5 sentences please

Need help editing research paper

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. One of the references must come from Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2016). You are expected to include at least one scholarly and peer-reviewed resource outside of those provided in the readings for each discussion post. I need this completed by 04/25/18 at 6pm.  You will need access to  DSM-IV-T. 

Please thoroughly read the Discussion Posting and Response Rubric attached to evaluate both the posts and responses. There are four components evaluated for each Discussion Post and Response.

1. Responsiveness to Discussion Question /9

2. Critical Thinking, Analysis, and Synthesis /9

3. Professionalism of Writing /5

4. Responsiveness to Peers /9

To get the highest grade possible, ask yourself if you have SURPASSED the following standards as you re-read your posts BEFORE submitting them:

1. Responsiveness: For the Main Post: Did I answer the entire question?  Is it on time?  Does the answer demonstrate that I have read the material for the week and really thought about it?

2. Critical Thinking, Analysis, and Synthesis: Does my post demonstrate my ability to apply, reflect, AND synthesize concepts and issues presented in the weekly learning 0bjectives? Have I integrated and mastered the general principles, ideas, and skills presented? Do my reflections include a clear and direct correlation to authentic examples or are they drawn from professional experience? Do my insights demonstrate significant changes in awareness, self-understanding, and knowledge?

3. Professionalism of Writing: Do my posts meet graduate-level writing expectations (e.g., are clear, concise, and use appropriate language; make few errors in spelling, grammar, and syntax; provide information about sources when paraphrasing or referring to it; use a preponderance of original language and directly quote only when necessary or appropriate)? Are my postings courteous and respectful when offering suggestions, constructive feedback, or opposing viewpoints?

The Influence of Culturally Bound Syndromes and Worldview on the Counseling Relationship

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders includes a section that highlights diagnoses that are specific to a particular culture. If a disorder is prevalent among the majority of members of a particular culture, can a counselor assume a client from that culture is likely to incur that disorder? Some have argued that culture-specific diagnoses are actually a barrier to multicultural counseling. To what extent do a counselor’s cultural biases create barriers in counseling?

For this Discussion, review the assigned Learning Resources for this week and refer to Table 10.1: Culture Bound Syndromes from the DSM-IV-TR in the Sue and Sue course text. Then, with culturally bound syndromes in mind, consider how a counselor’s worldview could influence the diagnosis of a client or the interpretation of the symptoms a client experiences.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post by Day 3 one way a counselor’s cultural worldview might affect his or her assessment and diagnosis of a client’s situation. In addition, explain how assumptions based solely on culture could adversely influence the client and the counseling relationship.

Support your responses with specific references to the Learning Resources and current literature.

Required Resources


· Hays, P. A. (2016). Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

o Chapter 6, “Creating a Positive Therapeutic Alliance” (pp. 101-123)

o Chapter 7, “Conducting a Culturally Responsive Assessment” (pp. 127-160)

o Chapter 8, “Using Standardized Tests in a Culturally Responsive Way” (pp. 161-194)

o Chapter 9, “Making a Culturally Responsive Diagnosis” (pp. 195-223)

· Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2016). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

o Chapter 5, “The Impact of Systemic Oppression: Counselor Credibility and Client Worldviews” (pp. 145-177)

o Chapter 7, “Barriers to Multicultural Counseling and Therapy: Individual and Family Perspectives” (pp. 215-249)

o Chapter 8, “Communication Styles and Its Impact on Counseling and Psychotherapy” (pp. 251-281)

o Chapter 10, “Non-Western Indigenous Methods of Healing: Implications for Multicultural Counseling and Therapy” (pp. 321-351)

o Chapter 13, “Culturally Competent Assessment” (pp. 429-455)

· American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

o “Cultural Formation” (pp. 749 –759)

· Document: The Case of Mrs. Hudson (Word document)

Optional Resources

· State University of New York, New Paltz, Institute for Disaster Mental Health. (n.d.). Tip sheet on Haitian culture.

· Desrosiers, A., & St. Fleurose, S. (2002). Treating Haitian patients: Key cultural aspects. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 56(4), 508–521.

· Nicolas, G., DeSilva, A. M., Grey, K. S., & Gonzalez-Eastep, D. (2006). Using a multicultural lens to understand illnesses among Haitians living in America. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37(6), 702–707.

Response Guidelines

Provide a substantive contribution that advances the discussion in a meaningful way by identifying strengths of the posting, challenging assumptions, and asking clarifying questions. Your response is expected to reference the assigned readings, as well as other theoretical, empirical, or professional literature to support your views and writings. Reference your sources using standard APA guidelines. 

Peers have responded to: 

Data Screening

For this discussion, identify the goals of data screening. Then discuss how you can identify and remedy the following: Errors in data entry. Outliers. Missing data.


Cait Bahr 

Warner (2013) discusses the many goals of data screening in Chapter 4 of Applied Statistics from Bivariate Through Multivariate Techniques. Most importantly, data screening is used to monitor problems that may occur in data analyses (Warner, 2013). In data screening, it is necessary to identify all errors in data collection, otherwise, the results and data will be skewed and therefore incorrect. Other goals of data screening include correcting data errors, determining what data is missing and finding extreme outliers (Warner, 2013). Data sampling needs to be addressed in most data entry because there are significant problems that can occur when processing data (Warner, 2013). Some notable problems with data include extreme outliers, missing data, errors in data entry, small sample sizes, and nonlinear relationships in the data (Warner, 2013). 

     When identifying and remedying issues in data entry it is incredibly important to fix errors in data entry, locate outliers and correct any missing data (Warner, 2013). In order to address errors in data entry, all of the data must first be completely proofread (Warner, 2013). To ensure that the correct data is being entered, it is wise to compare the data being entered to the original data from the experiment (Warner, 2013). Additionally, the numbers being entered should be also compared to logbooks in addition to being checked by multiple individuals (Warner, 2013). In data entry, outliers are normally numbers that are either too high or look unusual (out of place) (Warner, 2013). So outliers do not skew or create false data, many researchers remove outliers prior to data entry (Warner, 2013). Lastly, when there is missing data there are many ways to replace data (Warner, 2013). For one, SPSS allows researchers to find missing data in their application, system missing values (Warner, 2013). Rather than counting the missing data as a form of data, this software instead replaces the missing data with an estimated value or excludes the missing data completely (Warner, 2013). Regardless of how the missing data is corrected, researchers are suggested to report all missing data in their research findings summary (Warner, 2013).                                                         


Warner, R. M. (2013). Applied Statistics From Bivariate Through Multivariate Techniques (2nd ed.). Thousand Oakes, CA: SAGE Publications.


Teddrick McCreary 

What are the goals of data screening? When we are working with numbers and data, there can be many different errors, measurements, inconsistencies, missing values or outliers. It is important that when we are researching information regarding any population, we need to run preliminary analyses with the data collection (Warner, 2013).  For myself, I found it easier to understand by means of: data screening is the way to inspect the data collected for any errors and correct those errors before the final analysis. This is done by checking over the data, recognizing any outliers, and then dealing with any missing data.

How can I identify and fix errors in data entry, outliers, and missing data?

• Errors in data entry: That really can be avoided by knowing more about where you are getting your information, any experiments, and being aware that there may be errors (Warner, 2013).  For myself, with the fact that I collect much of my data through anecdotals. So I am in the classroom, observing and collecting data on frequencies of behaviors, new behaviors, or types of behaviors. One of the main factors of error in my data entry would be the issue of reactivity. Meaning, since I am there and they are aware of my presence, they may be acting different because I am there. This does happen because they can be very happy that I am there and act differently because of that, or on the other hand I could be making them more anxious then they are normally. Either way, this is going to give me different numbers than if I were just to leave it to the staff to collect and document the data I need.

• Outliers: An outlier is data that is extremely different than what others are in the same sample, population, or individuals being surveyed (Warner, 2013). An outlier can be significant due to alerting the researcher that there is an abnormality or an error in the measurements that one is working on. When we find that we have an outlier, we then need to decide if we want to keep or take out the outlier. There are sometimes in which it would be ok to not add the outlier; however, there are times in which this outlier could be showing us a new trend or discovery in the information that we are looking at.

• Missing Data: Typically, we are not going to find the missing data until we enter the information into SPSS. Once we have entered the data, then there are two types of missing data, system missing and human error (Warner, 2013). We can do somethings with missing data. One thing we can do is just leave it alone. The missing values could be small, non-random, or something that we could just create a composite of the item by averaging them together into a new variable. One thing that we have to keep in mind is that with this missing data, SPSS with either use a listwise or pairwise deletion. Another thing we could do is delete the cases with the missing values, this way we have complete data for all of the subjects in the study (Psychwiki, 2011). 


Psychwiki. (2011). Dealing with Missing Data. Retrieved from

Warner, R. M. (2013). Applied Statistics: From Bivariate Through Multivariate Techniques (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

My Initial Response:

Data Screening

The goals of data screening include: To check for outliers To check for missing data To check  for errors in data entry

Outliers can be spotted by either plotting a box/plot or a histogram of the variable. They can be corrected by omitting them in the analysis.

Missing data can be identified by exploring through your data set before commencing analysis. You can opt to delete the missing cases all together or fill in a value like the mean if deletion will result in sample size quality.

Errors in data entry can be spotted by either exploring your data set before analysis, counter checking with the source data or plotting a histogram and checking for inconsistent values. This error can be avoided by one been keen using data entry or using digital data capture media.


Warner, R. M. (2013). Applied Statistics From Bivariate Through Multivariate Techniques (2nd ed.). Thousand Oakes, CA: SAGE Publications.


You will need your completed Article Review Tool Excel spreadsheet for this discussion.

Week 3 Dream Analysis

For the assignment you will need to describe the latent and the manifest content of a dream you have had. You do not have to be an expert to uncover the hidden meaning of your dream, you can have fun and interpret however you want to. Please read the section and take a look at the module before completing this assignment to make sure you understand Latent and Manifest content.

Week 3 Auditory System

Lets start off with the eternal riddle: If a tree falls in the forest with no one around, does it still make a sound? The answer is no! Please explain to me why the answer to this question is no. In order for you to answer this question accurately you will need to understand and explain the auditory process.  It is best to type your response in word and then cut and paste it in the assignment area. Remember this is a writing assignment and writing assignments are expected to be about 1/2 page in length if single spaced and 1 page in length if double spaced.word count 150-300.

  Due DateMonday, April 30, 20181:00 AMPoints Possible10 Write a 2 page paper on the following:

Client A has been diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia, and has been ill with the disorder for the past 10 years. He takes medication very sporadically, but is markedly improved when he does. He commits a murder while off the medication in response to command hallucinations that tell him to kill a particular person. He states he wants the death penalty during the entire trial. He is put in prison, on death row, but is also put back on the neurolepticmedication. After 3 months on the medication, he is no longer hallucinating, and has no other positive symptoms of schizophrenia. He states he does not want to die and is very sorry for the murder. Should he be put to death? Why or why not? Justify your response with information from the text book chapter, readings, the Internet Assignment, and/or any other professional references.

Please use APA style for your cover page, citing references and formatting the reference page. DO NOT include font text larger than 12 or font color other than black.