Compare and Contrast Theories of Counseling

There are many theories behind the different counseling modalities. Some counselors will adhere to one specific theory, focusing treatment types to the tenets of that theory. Other counselors will adopt a more eclectic counseling foundation, drawing key ideas from multiple theories and combining many treatment types to suit their clients.

For this assignment, create a chart that outlines the following counseling theories: behavior theory, psychoanalytic theory, cognitive-behavioral theory, and person centered theory. For each theory, cover the following aspects: Goals of therapy Types of treatment Theoretical explanation of where substance use or abuse stems from Characteristics of the client that would be the best fit for this theory

Download a copy of the chart template which you can use to create your chart.

Once your chart is complete, address the following questions: Describe the similarities and differences between the different therapeutic theories. According to you, which approach or combination of approaches best fits you as a future counselor?

Write a 4–5-page paper (including the chart) in Word format. 



Section 7.4, Motor Development – “Individual Differences in Motor Skills” – Journal 7.2 

Mabel and Chat want to do everything they can to support their 3-year-old daughter’s motor development. What advice would you give them?


 Section 8.6, Gender Typing – “Reducing Gender Stereotyping in Young Children” – Journal 8.3 

List findings indicating that language and communication—between parents and children, between teachers and children, and between peers—powerfully affect children’s gender typing. What recommendations would you make to counteract these influences?


 Section 8.6, Gender Typing – “Reducing Gender Stereotyping in Young Children” – Journal 8.3  

Would you describe your own gender identity as “masculine,” “feminine” or androgynous? What biological and social factors might have influenced your gender identity?


Read “Topic 1: Vargas Case Study” and imagine that you are going to conduct a first interview with this family. Write a 700-1,050-word paper that addresses the following: Discuss how you would build alliance with this family. Develop some hypothesis about the family patterns that you believe are maintaining the problem. Conclude by outlining your expectations for each phase of treatment (rapport building, assessment and intervention, and closure).

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Refer to the directions in the Student Success Center. 

Discussion post of one to two paragraphs.

The field of cognitive neuroscience includes a wide array of disciplines  and professions, such as the research neuroscientist who focuses on  non-human primate translational work or the clinical neuropsychologist  who conducts assessment with patients at a medical center. How do you  see cognitive neuroscience benefiting the field of psychology, the  patients who seek mental health services, and society at large? How do  you think cognitive neuroscience could affect primary and secondary  education of children and adolescents? What historical developments in  neuroscience have had the greatest effect on the larger field of  psychology? Provide examples to support your thinking. 

Direction In each reply, use at least 2 scholarly references. Keep in mind enthusiastic agreement and respectful disagreement with others in the class is expected. respond to this post below.


One third of all prescription painkiller overdose death involve methadone, a figure six times greater than it was 10 years ago (Inaba & Cohen, 2014). Although methadone is a legally authorized opioid used to treat heroin addiction, there is still danger to this. Methadone is an addicting drug, and must be monitored closely to prevent diversion into illegal channels. There has been proposals and research about making methadone treatment more convenient to bring it into the mainstream of healthcare, instead of limiting recovering addicts to receiving treatment only at methadone clinics. However, methadone is commonly sold among the streets and addicts tend to combine methadone with other opioids and non-opioids which intensifies the high and reminds them the feeling they get when they took heroin (Inaba & Cohen, 2014). Therefore, methadone is just as dangerous and can still be as addictive as other drugs. Although it is used to help heroin addicts, one still must be extremely careful and cautious that the addict does not continue to use methadone after treatment.

Substance abuse and dependence have an enormous impact on society, stated by Reske & Paulus. “Neuropsychological studies of substance abuse treatment outcome have found that individuals who recover successfully show intact functioning on most measures, whereas those who relapse do poorly on tests of language, abstract reasoning, planning, and cognitive flexibility” (Reske & Paulus, 2008). Relapse is complex and multi-dimensional process and there are many assessment domains related to relapse.

Many addicts rely on methadone to help feel better again. Studies have shown that places like methadone maintenance treatment is effective in improving quality of life and physical health (Kaminer, 2010). Their sleep, appetite, general health, weight, sexual desire, etc. all seemed to show positive outcomes when attending this type of treatment. It also helps lessen withdrawal symptoms when taking methadone. However, in the this journal entry, it also states how now they are worried about their dependence on methadone and they frequently request an increase in their dosage over time. With methadone, counselors must really be on top of their usage and be aware if their client is still taking it or not. It may be good to take methadone with detoxing from heroin, but continually taking it afterwards is where the new addiction begins.

Inaba, D. S. & Cohen, W. E. (2014). Uppers, downers, all arounders; physical and mental effects of psychoactive drugs. CNS Productions, Inc. Medford, OR. 

Kaminer, Yifrah. “Challenges and Opportunities of Group Therapy for Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Critical Review.” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 30, no. 9, 2005, pp. 1765–1774., doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.07.002.

Direction: Presents an opportunity to expand the discussion and knowledge related to the topic. In each reply, use at least 2 scholarly references. Keep in mind enthusiastic agreement and respectful disagreement with others in the class is expected.


As research into addictions and recovery has advanced, so too have treatment options. Clearer understanding of the biological impact of addiction has given way to a variety of medication assisted treatments (MATs). While it may be reassuring knowing there are a greater number of tools available to treat addiction, it is important to assess the risks and benefits of these medications. 

MATs can provide much benefit if used properly. For instance, Antabuse can effectively aid the drinker by providing additional motivation to abstain. This is done by interfering with the metabolization of alcohol in the body (Lyles, n.d.). The result is a buildup of metabolites that results in an feeling of illness for the user. Antabuse’s effects, however, dissipate quickly. Thus, if a patient resolves to drink, all they need to do is stop taking Antabuse prior to consumption (Lyles, n.d.).

Methadone is an opioid agonist designed to serve as a drug replacement allowing the individual to avoid withdrawal by continued activation of the opioid receptors associated with opiate addiction (Bisaga & Chernyaev, 2018). While there could be much appealing about this option for an addict, there are risks to consider. First, Inaba and Cohen (2014) point out that the abuse and overdose rates associated with methadone use have increased in recent years. Second, methadone cessation can induce some of the most severe and long-lasting symptoms associated with opioid withdrawal (Inaba & Cohen, 2014). Other substances, such as buprenorphine are partial agonists thus offering some of the benefits of methadone (though with a lesser degree of neuronal excitation) while also blocking other opioids from attaching to receptors). As with methadone, however, the abuse potential is an ever-present risk (Inaba & Cohen, 2014; Doweiko, 2015).

Drugs such as naltrexone, on the other hand, provide benefit by serving as an opioid antagonist. In other words, they block the opioid receptors from activation by other opioids without activating those receptors themselves (Inaba & Cohen, 2014). Such effects can provide temporary relief from cravings for the short time the medication is in the system. Vivtrol is similar to naltrexone though it remains on the receptors for a greater duration of time.

Reske and Paulus (2009) point out that relapse is best understood as a multidimensional process involving a number of neurological and psychological processes occurring prior to, during, or after re-use. In light of this more comprehensive understanding, MATs ought to be weighed in light of the strengths and liabilities of the client being served. For instance, if an individual is a precontemplative alcoholic who chronically drinks, Antabuse may not be appropriate given it is best used with those who drink impulsively and who have a degree of internal motivation to abstain (Lyles, n.d.). Likewise, methadone maintenance may not be appropriate for the patient presenting with mild to moderate opioid use disorder who reports minimal withdrawal symptoms. It may be appropriate, however, for the chronic relapser with an extensive history of overdose and hospitalization.

In conclusion, when utilizing MAT, it is imperative that clients be provided accurate, understandable information about the biological impact, risks and benefits of such treatments. This can be done by using either group psychoeducation or one on one discussion supplemented by handouts. It is further important that clients be offered opportunities to process ways those risks and benefits may relate to their personal experience of addiction and recovery. Medications can provide valuable assistance in the treatment of addiction but, as with anything, uninformed or improper use can contribute to more harm than good.



Bisaga, A. & Chernyaev, K. (2018). Overcoming opioid addiction: The authoritative medical guide for patients, families, doctors, and therapists. New York, NY: The Experiment. ISBN: 978-



Assignment #1


Part 3 contains a statement of the research question and hypothesis, and a description of the research methods you will use to answer your research question. This includes the population and your sampling procedures, instruments used, and data collection procedures. 


1. Propose a Method using quantitative approach to investigate the problem you had identified

2. The format for Part 3 is contained in the following research paper outline


enclosed you will find the research proposal outline and part 2 of my research to implement into part 3 of this final research. The main objective of this research is to investigate domestic violence and determine whether or not men can truly recover from their abusive ways. In part 3 your research should show what tools these man are using to actually be able to recover from being abusive. your answer should be a more through than simply saying “they need to see a psychotherapist.” What methods do you believe based on your research can save these individuals or that’s worth looking into.


Assignment 2


This part of the assignment is simply to provide a response to the below discussion post and respond to the 2 peer responses I posted. Your research will be about domestic violence and how and if men can truly recover from being abusive.


Discussion question:


Consider the design of your research proposal. How would it be different if you incorporated methods form the “opposite” family of methods from the one you have chosen? For instance, if your study is quantitative, how would it be different if you also incorporated qualitative methods? What questions would you ask? How would this enhance your project? On the other hand, if your study is qualitative, how might you enhance your study by incorporating quantitative methods? What instruments might you use, and what questions would you want to answer? Be as specific as possible, and give feedback to classmates on their posts.


Discussion response #1


The design of my research proposal would be different if I incorporated qualitative methods, since I am using a quantitative approach. I would have detailed perspectives of a few people, in which I can hear the voices of those who chose to participate, as I dig deep to understand their experiences. I will use emerging methods and open ended questions to allow highly interpretive story-like information, which is beneficial for my research. To enhance my project, I would ask questions such as: when did you notice the sudden changes in your body?: Please describe the emotions and mental state you went through.: What leading factors played a role in your symptoms and diagnosis?: Which direction in terms of medical attention did you utilize?: Was the medical attention from doctors, nurses, labs, technicians, therapists, etc… beneficial/not beneficial? The instruments I might use would be insensitive, and uncensored medical files according to each participants approval. The purpose would be for data comparison, outcomes, and study related purposes. 


Discussion response #2


My research is based on a qualitative method. To incorporate methods from the quantitative method would mean I would take into consideration the number of participant, the number of graduates as well as the number of those who are unsuccessfully discharged versus those who are successfully discharged. These also may include looking at the genders that are participating in the program. This may enhance my project in once since that if gender is considered it may give a way to look at the differences that may occur when treating a female and a male. If both methods were used in this research, it could perhaps answer questions on both perspectives of the research. If I am stating what the program address, I may also want to distinguish if there are different components as they pertain to gender. 


Assignment is due 7/21/2018 by 2200 Eastern Standard time. 

Journal Article Review

Prosocial BehaviorUsing the Argosy University’s Online Library databases, search the following journal article: Rutten, E. A., Stams, G. J. J. M., Biesta, G. J. J., Schuengel, C., Dirks, E., & Hoeksma, J. B. (2007).The contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent athletes. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 36,

255–264.The authors of this article hypothesize that playing sports provides a positive social atmosphere for adolescents and shares prosocial norms of appropriate behavior. 

This creates less antisocial behavior and more prosocial behavior in adolescent athletes. The authors also hypothesize that high quality coach-athlete relationships will be related to less antisocial behavior and more prosocial behavior in adolescent athletes.

Read the article and discuss the following:Explain the traits that define a positive social atmosphere, which include the prosocial norms of appropriate behavior and the attributes of a high quality coach-athlete relationship.Support your discussion with your own experience as an adolescent by addressing the following:

Were you involved in sporting events that fostered the three things the authors describe: a positive social atmosphere; shared prosocial norms of appropriate behavior; and a high quality coach-athlete relationship?

If not, what do you think might have been helpful?Write a two- to three-page paper and present it in Microsoft Word document format. 

Name your file M4_A1_LastName_ProsocialBehavior.doc, and submit it to the

Submissions Area by the due date assigned.

All written assignments and responses should follow APA rules for attributing sources.Assignment 1 Grading CriteriaMaximum PointsExplained the traits that define a positive social atmosphere and the attributes of a quality coach-athlete relationship.

16Supported your discussion with your own experience as an adolescent by addressing the following: Described the sporting events you were involved in that fostered the three things the authors describe:

 a positive social atmosphere; shared prosocial norms of appropriate behavior; and a high quality coach-athlete relationship.Described what might have been helpful to foster the three things described by the author if you had not been involved in sports.

16Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources, displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.


 How Ethics Differ in Research and Therapeutic Practice

Prior to beginning work on this discussion, read the APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct  (Links to an external site.)Links to an external its entirety, paying special attention to standards 8 and 10 that cover ethics in research and therapeutic practice. Oftentimes research methods courses discuss the ethics of research and focus on historic examples of unethical research studies. This discussion of ethics will involve a different focus. The Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. presents information on ethical standards and expectations that apply to specific situations, including therapy and research. Explain the differences between the ethical standards for clients being treated by psychologists in counseling sessions and the standards for conducting psychological research with human participants. Consider your future career in the field of psychology and describe the parts of the Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. you expect to relate directly to your future career. Select and provide the number for one ethical requirement that applies specifically to psychological research and briefly summarize the standard. Explain why this requirement may not apply to a therapy situation.

Guided Response: Review several of your colleagues’ posts and respond to at least two of your peers who selected a different ethical requirement than you by 11:59 p.m. on Day 7 of the week. You are encouraged to post your required replies earlier in the week to promote more meaningful interactive discourse in this discussion. 

As you formulate your responses, answer the following questions: Did your colleague provide a thorough explanation of the differences between the ethical requirements for research versus those for therapeutic practice? What differences did your colleague note which you did not list in your initial post? Considering the future career your colleague mentioned, did he or she correctly describe the parts of the APA code which would directly relate to that career path? What suggestions might you make to your colleague in terms of ethical standards which would apply to this career path? Do you concur with your colleague’s choice of ethical standard that applies specifically to psychological research? If so, why? If not, what standards might you suggest your colleague consider that apply specifically to research? Did your colleague provide a convincing explanation as to why this standard would not apply to therapeutic practice? Can you think of additional explanations for why this requirement may not apply to a therapy situation?


Use the attached document “Descriptive Statistic Project” to complete the assignment.

While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.